Strengthen Capacity of Poverty Reduction by Village Public Products Supply —Taking Jiezhu Village, Xi’eluo Town of Yajiang County in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province as an Example
- poverty reduction approaches
- endogenous poverty alleviation
- vulnerable groups
- targeted poverty alleviation components
- supporting policies
Strengthen Capacity of Poverty Reduction by Village Public Products Supply —Taking Jiezhu Village, Xi’eluo Town of Yajiang County in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province as an Example
Title : Strengthen Capacity of Poverty Reduction by Village Public Products Supply —Taking Jiezhu Village, Xi’eluo Town of Yajiang County in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province as an Example
Commencement Date : Tue Mar 06 2018--
Implementing Agencies :
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CASE PROVIDER :
Name : Li Xueping Longming Azhen
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Abstract Summary :
At present, the research on rural public product supply and poverty reduction in academic circles mainly focused on farmers’ income growth. One consensus has been formed that the rural public product supply can alleviate poverty in many ways, including direct alleviation and indirect alleviation. For example, it can increase the farmers1 income and reduce expenditure at the same time. In the research from the perspective of income, it seemed to be more subtle to explore the rural public product supply’s influence on poverty reduction from the perspective of basic guarantee for farmers. The research mainly focused on the western China and some other provinces. For example ZhaoXi and Fan Shenggen discussed the poverty reduction model in western areas; Liu Liu and Peng Xinglian discussed the function of rural public production supply for poverty reduction in Tibet, Guizhou and Jiangxi. But the research on case study of a specific village was quite rare. As for the researches’ content, most of them discussed the status of rural public production supply, supply structure, system construction, and the existing problems and countermeasures, such as the research conducted by Sui Dangchengand Shao Guiwen. Generally speaking, the feature of research on the relationship between rural public products supply and poverty reduction is macro-research object and huge analytical framework so far. This paper takes Jiezhu village, Xi’eluo town of Sichuan province as an example, from the perspective of the fanners’ capability to explore the role that rural public product supply plays in improving the capability to achieve poverty reduction. On July 7 to 17, 2009, the author carried out investigation in Xi’eluo County and Jiezhu village and gathered all the materials from this investigation. The specific data concerning Xi’eluo County and Jiezhu village provided by Xi’eluo government and Poverty Relief Office of Yajiang County.
In the late 18th century, scholars defined poverty mainly according to “food consumption”. For example, Rowntree distinguished poverty from non-poverty on the basis of whether “physiological efficiency” of income has met or not Until 1965, Qusanski determined minimum food spending and applied specific engel’s index to differentiate poverty from non-poverty, and put forward poverty depends on the level of income, that is to say, whether possess a certain amount of money to meet the basic needs of human. Qusanski’s methods are still widely used by many scholars, nations and international organizations. Amartya Sen expanded the concept of poverty from income poverty to right poverty, capability poverty and human poverty, and enlarged the cause analysis of poverty from economic factors to politics, law, culture, system, etc. He elaborated on capability poverty and governance in Development as Freedom. Sen illustrated the concept of capability from the two angles: microscopic individuality and macroscopic totality. In Sen’s opinion, substantive freedom was a kind of capability.
Starting from the microscopic individuality, Amartya Sen defined poverty as the capality to achieve functional activity. In his view, “when analyzing social justice, there are strong reasons for us to judge the situation of someone by the capability the person has, that is the substantive freedom that the person possesses and the freedom to enjoy the life he cherishes. According to this perspective, poverty must be considered as deprival of basic capability, rather than low income. One’s capability refers to the functioning combination which possibly achieves for the person. Therefore, capability is a kind of freedom, which is the substantive freedom for achieving kinds of possible functional combination”. “The concept of ‘functioning’, reflects the various things or status which a person considers to be worth doing or achieving. There are many kinds of valuable functionings from the very primary request such as obtaining enough nutrition and exempting from the disease that can be avoided to quite comprehensive functionings or individual status, such as participating in community life and obtaining self-esteem. ” “ A person’s actual achievement can be presented by a functioning activity vector. A person’s ‘ capability set’ consisted of the mutual replaceable functioning activity vectors which the person may choose. Therefore, a person’s functioning combination reflects the actual achievements he has reached, while the capability set represents the freedom which the person may freely realize". During the specific study, Sen evaluated equality from the perspective of ' the life content domain’ and the ability to achieve the life content, and further elaborated the measuring methods of ability and the multiple subjects’ role in the ability to implement equality, constructed the concept of equality from ability perspective. Inspired by the poverty theory and method from Sen, the United Nations Development Programme respectively designed “capability poverty index” and “human poverty index” in 1996 and in 1997. The basic content of the two poverty indexes were both related to the real life and freedom that people had possessed.
From the macroscopic totality perspective, Sen regarded freedom as value orientation, and regarded increasing personal benefits as value goal. He considered that freedom was not only the primary purpose of development, but also the indispensable important means to promote development. The freedom which Sen referred to means the capability of enjoying the life that people have reason to cherish. In practical terms, “ substantive freedom including basic capabilities of escaping from hardship such as; hunger, malnutrition, avoidable diseases, premature death, and the freedom of literacy, enjoying political participation and so on”. Freedom plays a constructive role in development: freedom is the inherent part of people’s value standards and developmental goals, it is valued by itself, and therefore it does not need to present its value by the connection with other valuable things, neither standing out by playing a prompt role in other valuable things. At the same time, freedom is still the principal means of development. The most important five instrumental freedoms include political freedom, economic condition, social opportunity, transparency guarantee and protective security, which can help people live more freely and improve their overall capability in this aspect.
Sen constructed concept of capability, and also constructed the concept of ability poverty governance. That is to say, ability poverty presents as low capability. And the enhancement of capability relys on social arrangement, but the social arrangement at least needs to perfect the five instrumental freedom. Academic circles hold that; to a certain extent, the development concept of Sen is the legitimate argument for the equalization of public service in social construction in our country. Freedom and basic public service both have the constructive significance and instrumental significance. The constructive significance of equalization of public service exists in public products supply meeting the social public need, increasingly achieving the social and public interests, and ensuing the existence and sustainable development of human society to demonstrate the public value. There is inherent connection that happens to coincide with the instrumental significance of equalization of public service and the five instrumental freedoms Sen stressed. At least the construction of five instrumental freedom of Sen contains supplying various kinds of public production to people, especially those in backward areas and vulnerable groups. In the actual social practice in our country, as for supplying public products to the backward area and impoverished population, the fundamental idea is to achieve the equalization of public service. In order to achieve
equalization of public service, one of the essential public policies is “filling the short board”, namely the public products supply should show preference to the backward area and vulnerable groups.
Each kind of theory explaining the occurrence of poverty provides one or more factors and ways that influence poverty alleviation. However, public products supply is involved in all of the theories, for people believe that public products supply can perfect the poor welfare. The first report comprehensively analyzing the mutual relationships between the rural poverty status and public product supply in China was accomplished by the World Bank in 1992. The study holds that public products supply in the poor areas is of positive and significant efficiency and fair meaning. We consider that; If China’s current economic social development has entered into the public products supply era, then poverty reduction will have especially entered into the time of strong public products supply. As “National Program for Rural Poverty Alleviation (2001—2010)” points out; “The central and local governments financial relief fund, must be mainly used in perfecting the basic production and living conditions and the construction of infrastructures. ”
Through the public products supply to solve the problems caused by social interest groups differentiation and interest differentiation of areas, is a general approach among the world, and China is no exception. The reason is that: First, products supply and distribution play an important role in reducing income disparity. It should be said that, it plays a bigger and more direct role in supplying balanced public productions to the backward areas and vulnerable groups. As Anand and Ravallion considered that, on the spending structure the government should take the investment in public services as priority; in spending fields, government should look after low-income groups and poverty areas at first, because these fields are the places where maximum marginal utility lies in. Public products supply can directly improve the life conditions in backward areas and vulnerable groups in many ways, enhance the capability of people, and realize the substantive freedom of people. “ Better education and health care not only can directly improve the quality of life, but also can raise the capability to obtain income and get rid of poverty at the same time. If education and health care become more popular, if would be more likely for those who were poor to get better opportunity to overcome poverty.” The healthy body brought by public health and medical service can enable people to live a high-quality life; education plays an important role in cultivating skills, making people aware of and grasp the opportunities, protecting impoverished population from the vicious circle: low income—low education investment—low capability—low income; infrastructure improvements will directly improve living standards and the quality at the same time, expand people's capability in aspects of production and exchange. That is to say, public products supply assumes the role of “protection”and “promotion”. The former focuses on preventing people from being reduced into lower living standards, and the latter aims to improve living standards and expand capability.
In short, the relationship between public products supply, capability and poverty reduction can be summarized as following:
aim to to realize
the public products supply → raise capability→ poverty reduction
2. Public Products Supply in Jiezhu Village
The article took Jiezhu village as an example, which lies in Xi’eluo town, Yajing County (key counties for national poverty alleviation and developmental work), Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan
Province (concentrated special type poverty-stricken area), where 98 percent of population are Tibetan. By the end of 2009, the per capita net income of farmers in Xi’eluo town was 1,879 yuan. The poverty population totaled 1,223 and the poverty rate was 38%. To conclude,
Xi’eluo town and Jiezhu village with deep poverty and high poverty rate
display the typical characteristics of concentrated special type poverty- stricken areas.
2.1 The production and living subsidies forJiezhu village residents
When Sen investigated the poverty, he expanded low income to low capability, but he did not negate relationship between low income and poverty, he proposed; “low income can be the important reason for deprivation of a person’s capability. Income shortfall really is a strong inducing condition that cause poverty. ” “ The relative deprivation of income can produce absolute deprivation of capability. ” And “between the income deprivation and the difficulty in changing income to functionings, there is a certain coupling effect. The defects in capability such as age, disability, illness, will lower the capability to obtain income. And these factors also make transforming income to capability more difficult. As for the person with older age, more serious disability, and more severe illness, they will need more income( in order to get care, correct disability, receive treatment) to accomplish the functionings compared with others. This determined that the ‘ real poverty’ according to capability deprivation, may be more severe than the poverty showed by income opportunities at some obvious level”.
Considering the relationship between the low income and capability in the village of concentrated special type poverty-stricken areas such as Jiezhu village, improving the villagers capability means that increasing the income of the villagers is still the primary task. Prividing all kinds of subsidies is the most direct approach for income growth. In recent years, the government has provided various kinds of subsidies as followings.
The whole villagers have participated in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System. The fund for cooperative medical is 100 yuan each year. Each individual hands in 20 yuan, and local governments pay another 80 yuan for each villager. Since Yajiang is a national-level poverty-stricken county, all of the 80 yuan is paid by the central finance.
2. 1. 2 The minimum living allowance
There are 191 people who enjoy subsistence allowance in Jiezhu village. The standard is 45 yuan per month per person.
2. 1. 3 Food direct subsidy and comprehensive direct subsidy
These subsidies should be distributed to the grain famers. Food subsidies mainly include the seed subsidy, and the subsidy standard is 10.77 yuan per mu; in comprehensive direct subsidy, the subsidy is 100. 95 per mu. So the total subsidy amounts to 111. 72 yuan per mu. The larger the area for planting grains, the more subsidies.
2.1.4 Returning the grain plots to forestry subsidy
The subsidies converted into RMB is on average 260 yuan per mu each year, and the subsidy has last for 8 years. The specific distributing method of subsidies according to the need of villagers, is to issue 130 yuan per mu, and issue the grains which value 130 yuan per mu. Returning the Grain Plots to Forestry would be checked and accepted in 2009, if the acceptance was passed, villagres would continue to accept aid for another eight years; if acceptance was unqualified, villagers should return all the subsidies and get fined. Xi’eluo county has passed the acceptance, and the government will continue to aid farmers for 8 years.
The village picks out for the poorest families each year, and the subsidy is 195 yuan per person. The population who get the subsidy is not stable. There are more people who get the subsidy and more subsidies from the county during the disaster year. The total amount is above 50,000 yuan in general, sometimes up to 70,000 to 80,000 yuan.
2. 1. 6 Family planning aid
The kind of aid include; (1) “ fewer children equals faster prosperity” subsidy is aimed at the married women under the age of 49, who only have two children and take birth control measures, and onetime subsidy is 3,000 yuan. There were about 20 families which get this subsidy in Jiezhu village in recent years; (2)mutual assistance awards are aimed at the old above the age of 60, who only have one children or only two daughters; after passing the application, everybody can get subsidies of 600 yuan per year, and one couple get 1200 yuan per year. The subsidy object can get the money until death. (3) one-child allowance. The couples, who volunteer to have just one child, can get 10 yuan per month until the child grow up to the age of 18.
2.1.7 “The three old cadre” subsidies
“The three old cadre” refers to village cadres, activists and party members who are in position during the years from 1959 to 1962. The allowance standard is 180 yuan per month per person, and in addition there are another 500 yuan every year for Spring Festival. “The three old cadre”can get this subsidy until death.
2.1.8 Civil administration subsidies
(1) Famine relief. In disaster year, there are 2,000 yuan relief funds for spring famine in the village, mainly used to buy seeds. (2) The medical relief. This relief mainly involves low income households. When they see the doctor besides medicare reimbursement, through application, approved by township government, they can get reimbursement of 100 yuan to 5,000 yuan at County Civil Affairs Bureau. (3) Disaster relief. There will be these subsidies when large disasters happen, but the amount of grants is not stable.
In terms of the actual effect of subsidies delivery, it has directly raised the income of villagers, and strengthened their capability. The delivery of living aids undoubtedly generated effect, and the effect is also obvious in production subsidies issued. Academic circles considered that: compared with “secret subsidy” which aid the grain production enterprises, the “apparent subsidy” which is issued to grain farmers in cash, from the perspective of integration production, the latter provides early capital for production and results in better effect in enhancing the villagers’ enthusiasm for production and income. The reason is that farmers should produce grain before obtaining “apparent subsidy”. Therefore the effect of “secret subsidy” fades compared with “apparent subsidy”.
In addition to all sorts of direct subsidies, another approach to increase the cash income of villagers is the implementation of work relief in infrastructures. In recent years, the implementation of work relief project and the expenditure on Xi’eluo county include; relocating 100 households; investing about one million yuan in work relief, more than 200,000 yuan in work relief to build Zha’a bridge and about 300,000 yuan in work relief to construct concrete road in Jiezhu village.
2. 2 Infrastructure construction
Village infrastructure construction includes road construction, human and livestock drinking water facilities construction, power supply, radio and TV facilities construction, communication facilities construction, etc. The study from Sui Dangcheng showed that in terms of contribution rate, the infrastructure construction investment in rural areas made the biggest contribution rate for per capita net income of rural residents. Moreover, infrastructure construction can directly improve the living conditions of villagers, and enhance the capability of villagers. For example, the benefits of road construction in favour of strengthening the capability of villagers are as follows: First, improve the villagers travelling conditions, make job hunting easy, and save transportation cost, etc. Second, expand the scope of communication, increase village social capital. Third, develop the market, enable agricultural products to be transported in time, and then realize its commodity value; perfect agricultural trading conditions and reduce the transportation cost. As another example, village broadcasting and TV, communication network construction are conducive to reducing productional cost, transactional costs and market risk. Economic activities include the production activities as well as trading activities. The cost generated in the former is called productional cost, and the latter named transactional cost. The reason for transactional costs is the information asymmetry. Favorable village public products supply can enable the farmers to have more access to trading information, so that finding transaction objects, bargaining, and winning trading contract will be easier.
Under the comprehensive development-oriented poverty reduction model in village, the situations of infrastructure construction in Jiezhu village are like that: the project of expanding radio and television coverage in the rural areas has been accomplished, and television is widely available to each household; water pipe were equipped in every household in 2008; a China mobile base station and China unicorn base station have both been constructed in Jiezhu village, and mobile signal coveres all over the village; there are abundant water and electricity in whole Yajiang county, and with adequate supplies, every household has access to electric light. In recent years, the construction of roads and bridges in Xi’eluo town has enabled every household to have access to highway (including service roads towards villages). These constructions include: (1)During the year 2007 to 2009, the government invested 20 million yuan to construct the Niu Xi Road of about 13 kilometers from 318 National Highway to Yajiang county. (2) In 2008, the government invested 800,000 yuan to build cement road covering 1 km in Jiezhu village. (3) In 2008, the government spent 600,000 yuan constructing a bridge in Jiezhu village.
2.3 Basic public services
The supply of health care and basic education can greatly improve the capability of impoverished population, including perfecting daily living conditions and enhancing the population’s quality. Xi’eluo town is equipped with one hospital, two health clinic rooms, one primary school at county level, three primary school at village level. There are altogether 399 students and 20 teachers. Jiezhu village is the seat of Xi’eluo town goverment. Primary school, clinics and hospital directly serve residents in Jiezhu village.
The public medical care service which Jiezhu village residents enjoy include: First, all of Jiezhu village residents have participated in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Care System, and part of the villagers even can get medical relief. Second, township hospital is located in Jiezhu village, so the villagers can receive medical service in village. Third, in terms of the village environmental construction, township government has raised funds and built a rubbish collection station in Jiezhu village, and the township government hired a cleaner to sweep the street. When the author surveyed in Jiezhu village, he observed that there were no other pollutants except cow muck, especially no white garbage flying in the streets or around the village.
In terms of education, the government has implemented a policy for basic education that government pays the accommodation, meals and tuition, the entire school-age children in village can accept nine-year compulsory education for free. The enrollment rate is 100% and dropout rate is zero.
In terms of living services, in order to improve the villagers’ living conditions, the public products supply which the government at all levels provide mainly includes: the housing construction (rebuilding), supply for alternative energy facilities, protection for village community safety.
(1) Housing construction, (a) In recent years, the Xi’eluo town government has already invested 730,000 yuan to help 83 households alleviate the housing difficulties, (b) 60 households have accomplished housing reconstruction, and the investment is 1. 8 million yuan.
(2) Alternative energy infrastructure. The government has designed and produced energy-saving stoves, and distributed them to villagers for free; besides, the government provided 20 set of energy lighting equipments with 20 watts.
(3) Village security. Ensuring village safety shows the interactive cooperation between government and villagers. The specific measures are implemented by joint security defense, the main contents include fire prevention and protection against burglars and fight, etc. The system arrangements for realizing the village security mainly are; (a)The civil militia organization of township government is set up in Jiezhu village, and usually serve Jiezhu village, (b) Jiezhu village established the security defense team consisting of 6 persons (one person per family) in 2005, which is responsible for looking after property mutually. (c) Select “peace household” every year. Those households that did not fight, violate security regulations or commit crime can be named as “ peace household The township government will hang “ peace household” plaque on the door of the household as congratulations.
2.5 Disaster prevention and mitigation
Poverty and returning to poverty caused by disasters happen from time to time in Jiezhu village. Therefore, the government and villagers have implemented direct measures and indirect measures against natural disasters.
2. 5. 1 The direct disaster prevention and mitigation measures mainly include; (a) Building flood control dam. In 2008, the government spent 1. 35 million yuan building the dam around the village which is more than 120 meters high, and effectively realized flood control in flood season. (b) Disasters investigation. The township government established security inspection team, which regularly investigated natural disasters such as debris flow, landslide, collapse, and flood during flood season. Once a disaster happens, the township government will report to the superiors. At the same time, it will organize villagers to relieve the disaster, (c) Potential security dangers testing. The township government security inspection team regularly checks electric safety and building security infrastructure to prevent fire and houses collapse, etc.
2. 5. 2 Indirect disaster prevention and mitigation measures mainly are: (a) Distribute energy-saving stoves for free. The government researched and produced energy-saving stoves, and distributed them to villagers for free. The use of energy-saving stores can save firewood, reduce deforestation, protect vegetation as well as prevent soil erosion and water loss and mudslides, (b) Cultivate the reasonable slaughter concept toward livestock. In Jiezhu village 10% of families feed livestock in large scale, for example, Zhuzhu’s family has more than 260 cattle. Due to the influence of religious ideas, the slaughter keeps low. Zhuzhu’ family sold only seven or eight cattle per year several years ago. Snow disaster is the biggest natural disaster facing Jiezhu village, which is prone to cause herdsman family to fall into poverty. A heavy snow at the beginning of 2008, resulted in the freezing 50-60 livestock to death per household for big breeders. Influenced by the snow disaster, the original middle-income herdsman families fell into poverty in 2007. For this reason, the local government has applied a variety of ways to propagate the concept of reasonable slaughter. After the snow disaster, the slaughter rate had risen drastically by the end of 2008, Disasters and the propagation of concept from government increasingly changed the concept of herdsman.
2.6 The exploration of tourism industry
The year of 2000 is the 50th anniversary of the foundation of Ganzi Prefecture. During the celebration for the first time Ganzi Prefecture selected “Kangba Man”, and one man in Jiezhu village was selected. In 2003, in the Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibetan Arts Festival, twelve “Kangba Men” from Jiezhu village representing Yajiang county attended the Arts Festival, and showed the special style of “Kangba man”. Jiezhu village made its reputation. In 2003, Yajiang county Tourism Administration registered the “Kangba man village” trademark for Jiezhu village. The tourism industry of Jiezhu village started from this year. From 2003 to 2006, there were 15 households reconstructed to be“ receptional dwellings ” families. These 15 households rebuilt the
toilets, perfected the accommodations reception conditions, separated
the human from animals; the Tourism Administration carried out
culinary training towards these householders, unified the price of eating, lodging and riding a horse. In addition, it has paid more than 400,000 yuan for building the bridle path towards Guogangding, including county financial aid of 90,000 yuan, and the rest invested by villagers in the form of their labors.
From 2003 to 2007, it was the best period in tourism development of Jiezhu village. In 2007, the villagers average income has increased from previous 800 yuan to 1,400 yuan. The “receptional dwellings” households’ income was the highest, the average net profits come to 10,000 yuan. Villagers have more access to the outside world through the tourism development.
In recent years, the local government implemented relocation in order to totally improve the production and living conditions of impoverished population in poverty alleviation and development Around 100 households have been relocated.
3.Interpretation of the Poverty Reduction Effect of Jiezhu Village
Theoretical analysis holds that the village public products supply
can enhance the capability of villagers comprehensively, from reading
books and newspapers to ability enhancement in regard to social interaction, and economic activity, participation in community governance, and so on. In terms of the economic activities, the village
public products supply will reduce the total cost, including production
cost, transportation cost, cost of sales, risk cost and decision-making cost, the natural risk and economic risks in agriculture, so as to improve the efficiency of the production activities; improving rural public product will promote the specialization, scale, commercialization, industrialization, marketization, and sustainable development of agricultural production.
After years’ development of village public products supply, the actual capability of Jiezhu villagers has risen drastically. In Jiezhu village, many old men told the author:“We have the best time now. We constructed houses, and the government built the roads, provided electricity, and also issued various kinds of subsidies. Now people don't have to worry about food, clothing and shelters, only care about sideline production and cash income. The price of Chinese caterpillar fungus and matsutake are the hot topics among the villagers in daily conversations. ” Through the statements from the elderly, we can find the outstanding effect that the government has achieved in poverty reduction by public products supply over the years, namely, the villagers’ basic living can be guaranteed. However, low capability is caused by comprehensive factors, and enhancing the capability could not come true overnight. There is still a long way to go.
3.1 The evaluation of the villagers towards the changes
It is an available approach to examine the effect of the supply of public products in terms of poverty reduction according to the changes of the village and the household livings. When surveying in Xi’eLuo county and Jiezhu village, the author investigated more than 20 people and asked the same question as “what’s the biggest changes in your family and village during the past ten years?” To sum up their answers, there are three biggest changes in the village: the perfection of transportation conditions, and the upgrading of traffic tools; the abundant power supply accompanied by the popularization of home appliances; the gradual improvement of education conditions, high enrollment rate of school-age students and good employment of part of the village children.
3.1.1 The improvement of transportation conditions
The improvement of transportation conditions has enhanced capability of villagers in Jiezhu village: travel became convenient; the possibility and opportunity of interaction with outside world greatly increased; traffic tools were upgraded, and passenger and cargo traffic became one of the pillar industries; the convenient transportation contributed to the development of the tourism industry.
From villagers’ point of view, it’s not easy to access highway for every household. Aya told the author; “In the mid 1980s, someone bought two bikes, which was big news for the whole village, and created a mob scene. In 1988, the village had the first tractor, which was still unusual for the whole village, and they gathered and watched. In 1992, a villager bought the first tractor on his own, everyone regarded the family as the rich. In 1993 and 1994, there were 6 and 7 households who bought tractors, some people bought new tractors, other people bought second-hand tractors from Yajiang. Now every family has a tractor, 1^2 motorcycles; there are 3 households who bought big trucks, running a small transportation business, seven families bought cars to drive a taxi, they can earn 300 to 400 yuan each day, or 100 yuan at least. ”
3.1.2 Abundant electric power supply, popularization of household appliances improved the quality of life
Previously, the village had no electricity, only the District Working Committee generated electricity by generator every night, the power went out at ten o 'clock in the evening. In 1986, the public welfare funds and accumulation funds of the entire town from five villages were all invested in construction of hydropower station, and all the villagers volunteered their labour. The power station was finished in that year, every village and every household got access to the electricity. With the abundant power supply, household appliances gradually popularized. The old man named Renze told the author, “In 1984, people only had radios and tape recorders, now 100% of families have TV, tea grinders, mixers, 30% of the families have freezers and washing machines”. The popularization of home appliances made life convenient, saved the labor force, and kept visitors staying easily. In addition, the elderly signed with emotion especially, saying that the access to electricity enabled children to read books and do homework more conveniently in the evening. People can watch TV during leisure time, and the cultural life becomes more abundant
3. 1. 3 The development of basic education
From the narration of the several old people such as Duojie, Zhuzhu, and Zeren, etc. , the development of basic education in Jiezhu village can be concluded as follows; In 1959, the township built a primary school with only 2 or 3 teachers. At that time villagers lived a hard life, and were reluctant to send their children to school. During the political movement in the early 1960s, students were called on to take part in physical labor. The villagers thought it didn’t matter whether children went to school or not. In 1965, a student graduated from the village primary school with excellent grade and was employed as accountant in the Township Credit Cooperatives as a government cadre. Everybody admired him very much. The village children then had some learning enthusiasm. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the school still ran. After the “Cultural Revolution”, some students found jobs after graduation, villagers had some interest in education, but still 50% to 60% of families didn't value education. They asked children to collect Chinese caterpillar fungus and matsutake instead of studying. Now villagers attach great importance to education, the reason is that part of graduates from the primary school went to colleges and universities and got good jobs, and some of them even became government cadres. For example, Tashi is the chief of Immigration Bureau in a county. Liu is the director of the Tourism Bureau in a county. Zhang had been the deputy secretary of the CPC in a county. Zhang’s brother is chief of the City Planning Bureau in a county. In addition, there are examples of Jiayang and Fu and so on. There are so many college students and government cadres, which greatly inspired the learning enthusiasm of teenagers. In 2008, three young people in Jiezhu village were admitted to the civil servants and teachers; in 2009, there were seven young people who were admitted to the civil servants and teachers. In the 65 households of Jiezhu village. Six households of seven young people were admitted to civil servants and teachers, which generated great encouragement to the teenagers in Jiezhu village. At the same time,
Jiezhu village made its reputation in nearby county even in the Ganzi Prefecture. People all appreciated Jiezhu village for its high level of education. In 2009, two daughters of the old man named Aya were admitted to teachers. Aya was very happy, and he believed that education would change future. In addition, the school carried out bilingual education of Tibetan and Chinese, making effective achievements in teaching. Especially, the government has taken the Tibetan language as a subject in civil servant examination, which greatly stimulated the adolescents’ learning passion.
3.2 The long way towards poverty reduction
Jiezhu village has made great changes by years of hard working. However, there is still a long way towards poverty reduction.
3. 2.1 Income situation is still severe
The proportion of impoverished population in Jiezhu village still remains high, thus further income growth is needed to strengthen capability. In terms of the poverty in economic income, there are still 1,233 impoverished population in Xi’eluo township, poverty rate is 38%; the impoverished population in Jiezhu village are 193 people, the poverty rate reached 33%. Alough there are lots of low-income people, the income-increasing sources are very limited.
Neither pure husbandry household nor pure agricultural household' exists in Jiezhu village, every family does farm work, herding, and is engaged in sideline work (mainly the collection of Chinese caterpillar fungus and matsutake). The mode of agricultural production in Jiezhu village is one year one harvest season. 85 % of the family only have 2 to 5 yaks, 1 to 3 horses. Farming and husbandry production only guarantee the most basic living needs. Most of family cash income are mainly from the collection of Chinese caterpillar fungus and matsutake. The relatively limited income makes it difficult to cope with household spending, especially for the family whose children go to school in other places. The author examined the rough incomes from collection of Chinese caterpillar fungus and matsutake in the family of Gele, Tashi, Ajia, Gequ as follows.
Note; In 2009, because of less dry caterpillar fungus and lower of price, the income from collection of Chinese caterpillar fungus was fewer. When the author investigated in Jiezhu village no one start matsutake collection, so the income cannot be calculated.
Although the tourism in Jiezhu village is a good way to increase income, there are many problems to be resolved. For example, in 2008, influenced by the “3.14” event in Lhasa, there were no tourists, and the locals failed to make money; in 2009, even in the tourist season of mid-July, there were few visitors. To increase income by developing local tourism still asks for the further improvement of tourist environment and facilities.
In Jiezhu village, there are still some families in extreme poverty, especially the family with children studying in another places. For example, Gequ and his two aunts forms a family, the older aunt is old and frail, and the younger aunt has been disabled since childhood. Their family is the poorest family in the village. Gequ is studying in the second grade in a high school in a Tibetan school. His tuition relies on the support of the civil affairs department. The monthly subsidies is haid to guarantee his basic living, Gequ often does part-time jobs to earn living expense during every vacation.
3. 2. 2 Weaker capability in the process of income growth
During the investigation of the capability of Jiezhu villagers, the author found that; Few young and middle-aged people went out to
work; immigrant population were engaged in handicraft in this village as the village lacks craftsmen; business profits were also earned by immigrant population, etc. To a certain extent, it greatly influenced the villagers’ income improvement under the circumstance, and also showed
the weak capability of the villagers in relatively isolated mountainous
villages during the process of income growth.
The reasons that few young and middle-aged people in Jiezhu village went out to work has two interpretation-. One is no need to go out. A
few villagers believe that the natural condition in Jiezhu village is good,
since there are Chinese caterpillar fungus, matsutake, and Chinese
herbal medicine for collection, which can achieve self-sufficiency by and
large. The villagers spent time in collecting Chinese caterpillar fungus,
matsutake, Chinese herbal medicine, and they just waited for collection
season at home, instead of going out to work. Second is caused by the comprehensive reasons, and the main reason is the low educational level which resulted in the difficulty in going out to work. Most of the villagers think that, the person aged 30 to 50 have low educational level in Jiezhu village, some of whom can neither speak Chinese nor learn literate, so they will encounter many difficulties if they go out to work, let alone it’s not easy to find a job outside.
According to the author’s observation, the business profits earned by outsiders highlighted two aspects. First of all, most of the additional value of agriculture and husbandry sideline products are not substantially owned by Jiezhu village residents, and immigrant business men earned this part of profits. The sideline products in Jiezhu village mainly include Chinese caterpillar fungus, matsutake, Chinese herbal medicine and so on; husbandry products including milk dregs, butter, cowhair and wool, etc. Due to the weak commereial awareness of villagers, and lack of the ideas of deep processing, going out to sell and carrying out large-scale operation, most of the existing merchandise trade basically through the traditional marketing approaches, namely, that local villagers directly sell the husbandry and sideline products to the businessman coming around at the prices of initial raw materials. The villagers think that using such marketing methods is not only continuation of the traditional marketing way, but also related to the educational level of villagers. Secondly, the existing four stores are all run by the immigrant Han people in Jiezhu village. The author observed that the products which the four stores are selling covered every aspect of villagers’ production and life. During the transactional process of “a sale and a purchase”, Jiezhu village residents have lost the profits, benefits and job opportunities.
Jiezhu village is lack of craftsmen in carpentry and Tibetan coloured drawing or pattern, which results that the relevant opportunities of employment and cash income have been completely taken by the outsiders. The Tibetan architectures are of stone-wood structure and wooden furniture highlighted indoors generate great demand for carpentry.
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