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International Assistance • Public Service and Poverty Reduction - Practice of Improving Public Service Level in Rural China with the Word Bank Loan

International Assistance • Public Service and Poverty Reduction - Practice of Improving Public Service Level in Rural China with the Word Bank Loan

Cover and Title Page Catalogue and Summary Main Body

Title : International Assistance • Public Service and Poverty Reduction - Practice of Improving Public Service Level in Rural China with the Word Bank Loan

Commencement Date : Tue Jan 01 1985--Wed Dec 31 2003

Implementing Agencies : local government

Support Organizations :

Actuator :

Members of The :

Contact :

CASE PROVIDER :

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Sources of Funds : world bank

Catalogue and Index :

Abstract Summary :

1 Introduction 323 1.1Basic information 323 1.2Implementation conditions 324 2Project design solution 324 2.1Project Introduction 324 2.2Project objectives 325 2.3Project contents 326 3Project management system 330 3.1 Regulatory agency 330 3.2 Management system and mechanism 332 3.3 Project fund source and use 333 4PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS 335 4.1project planning preparation and capital flow 335 4.2Project monitoring 336 5Implementation Effect and Existing Problems 337 5.1Implementation Effect 337 5.2Existing Problems 338 6Basic Experience and Promotion Value 339 6.1Basic Experience 339 6.2Promotion value 341 7References 342 8Pictures 344 Rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation are an important part of the Chinese government’s implementation of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It is an important measure of China’s poverty reduction strategy to actively introduce international assistance for improving water supply and sanitation lavatories in poor rural areas of China, wherein the World Bank loan-supported rural water supply and sanitation projects have been implemented in 18 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China, which has a positive impact on water supply in poverty-stricken rural areas of China and international cooperation in the sanitation field, and manifests a strong representativeness in enhancing public services and self-development capacity of the poor population in the poverty relief field of public services. The project was successively implemented in four phases from 1985 to 2004 and achieved good social effects and practical experiences of universal significance. The implementation of the project has gradually changed the health behavior of farmers, enhanced the health level of villagers, saved labor cost of water fetching and improved the economic situation and income level of rural residents. The project actively implemented scientific management, advocated government leadership and extensive social participation, multi-level linkage, measure adjustment according to local conditions and scientific guidance, guided the farmers to pursue scale operation and sustainable development.
1 Introduction 323 1.1Basic information 323 1.2Implementation conditions 324 2Project design solution 324 2.1Project Introduction 324 2.2Project objectives 325 2.3Project contents 326 3Project management system 330 3.1 Regulatory agency 330 3.2 Management system and mechanism 332 3.3 Project fund source and use 333 4PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS 335 4.1project planning preparation and capital flow 335 4.2Project monitoring 336 5Implementation Effect and Existing Problems 337 5.1Implementation Effect 337 5.2Existing Problems 338 6Basic Experience and Promotion Value 339 6.1Basic Experience 339 6.2Promotion value 341 7References 342 8Pictures 344 Rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation are an important part of the Chinese government’s implementation of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It is an important measure of China’s poverty reduction strategy to actively introduce international assistance for improving water supply and sanitation lavatories in poor rural areas of China, wherein the World Bank loan-supported rural water supply and sanitation projects have been implemented in 18 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China, which has a positive impact on water supply in poverty-stricken rural areas of China and international cooperation in the sanitation field, and manifests a strong representativeness in enhancing public services and self-development capacity of the poor population in the poverty relief field of public services. The project was successively implemented in four phases from 1985 to 2004 and achieved good social effects and practical experiences of universal significance. The implementation of the project has gradually changed the health behavior of farmers, enhanced the health level of villagers, saved labor cost of water fetching and improved the economic situation and income level of rural residents. The project actively implemented scientific management, advocated government leadership and extensive social participation, multi-level linkage, measure adjustment according to local conditions and scientific guidance, guided the farmers to pursue scale operation and sustainable development.

Introduction :

The eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, including the improvement of water supply and sanitation in rural China to expand public services for the rural poor, is an important part of China's progress in achieving “Millennium Development Goals” of the United Nations. The drinking water hygiene issue and current situation of using dirty and tatty toilets in rural China are serious problems left over from history. Since the reform and opening up policy was implemented by China in late 1970s, the rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation have been organized and implemented as one of the key strategic elements of the national poverty reduction efforts in China, effectively promoting the rapid and considerable development of China's rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation. It is one of important measures of China’s pro-poor strategy to active introduce international aid for the water supply and sanitation lavatories renovation in rural China, and the international community has provided considerable support and assistance to the water supply and sanitation latrines renovation in rural China. The implementation of international community-aided project has cultivated a large number of management and technical personnel for more than half of the provinces in China capable of carrying out water supply, sanitation and health education in rural areas according to the scientific and efficient management procedures and methods, and set good examples for the advancement of rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation in major regions of China.

1.1 Basic information

It is one of important measures of Chinas pro-poor strategy to active introduce international aid for the water supply and sanitation lavatories renovation in rural China, and the international aid projects have achieved good results and rich experience. Many international assistance and cooperation projects supported by the World Bank, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have been implemented in 19 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China, accelerating the progress of water supply and sanitation latrines renovation in poverty-stricken areas in rural China. Among them, the World Bank loan project has been executed in 178 counties of 18 provinces throughout the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) with a total loan amount of approximately 330.6 million USD, the project has constructed 72,000 water supply subprojects in rural China and benefited a large population of 24.3771 million, and built 64,500 various types of sanitary latrines, and a large number of personnel have taken part in the training on water supply, sanitation and health education.

To strengthen project management and coordination, the Chinese Government has set up a national-level regulatory agency - National Project Office for the World Bank loan project. The project management involves the national, provincial and county-level governments. The key responsibilities of Project Offices at three levels are as follows: (1) setting up project office and setting a personnel quota; (2) supervision and management of the project office; (3) policy decision-making in the project implementation process; (4) project coordination with relevant government agencies.

The leader of National Project Leading Group is the Minister of Health of the PRC, the leader of Provincial Project Leading Group is the executive vice governor in charge of sanitation and health, the members are leaders of relevant departments under the provincial government; the County-level Project Leading Group is headed by the county magistrate, and the members are leaders of relevant departments under the county government. The composition and responsibilities of each level of Project Office are as follows:

National Project Office: Located in Disease Control department of the Ministry of Health (also resides with National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee Office/NPHCCO), the Rural Water Improvement Technical Guidance Center under China Center for Disease Control (CDC) is applied as a part of the National Project Office to provide support. The key responsibilities of National Project Office include: being responsible for organization, coordination, training, supervision and monitoring of project implementation; baseline survey and follow-up evaluation; organizing project International Competitive Bidding (ICB) material procurement; approval of the design of water supply project having an investment amount over 350,000 USD and acceptance of the completed project; compiling project report and annual project plan, and submitting accounting and auditing reports.

Provincial Project Office: Under the leadership of the Provincial Project Leading Group, it is composed of the Provincial Patriotic Health Campaign Committee Office and Health Department or the Water Resources Department. The key responsibilities of the Provincial Project Office are as follows: taking charge of the organization, coordination, training, supervision and monitoring of project implemented in the province; approval of the design of water supply project having an investment amount within a range of 60,000-350,000 USD and acceptance of the completed project; be responsible for organize procurement of building project with a budget over 100,000 USD; compiling project report and annual project plan, and submitting accounting and auditing reports.

County Project Office: Under the leadership of the County Project Leading Group, it is composed of the County Patriotic Health Campaign Committee Office and Health Bureau or the Water Resources Bureau. The key responsibilities of the County Project Office are as follows: taking charge of the organization, coordination, training, supervision and monitoring of project implemented in the county; approval of the design of water supply project having an investment amount less than 60,000 USD and acceptance of the completed project; be responsible for organize procurement of building project with a budget less than 100,000 USD; compiling project report and annual project plan, and submitting accounting and auditing reports.

The township government and village committee where the project resides shall coordinate with the County Project Office to fulfill the organization, coordination and implementation of the project, they provide the local labors and materials required by the water-related facilities, and assist the county finance bureau to pay the loan.

1.2 Implementation conditions

The tremendous achievement in water supply and sanitation latrines renovation in rural China is closely related to the Chinese political and economic environment over the past two decades. China has implemented the reform and opening up policy since late 1970s, the domestic political situation has kept a long-term stability, people live and work in peace and contentment, and such an extremely stable political situation and the formation of a socialist market economy provide a very favorable macro-environment for the rapid growth of the Chinese economy. The Chinese government has constantly attached great importance to water supply and sanitation latrines renovation in rural areas, the schedule and target concerning beneficiary population of rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation are included in the national economic construction and social development plan as important part. It manifests the determination and commitment that the Chinese government will continue to advance the work. The Chinese government has a strong capacity to mobilize resources, which is an important factor in continuous development and achievements in rural water supply and sanitation latrines reconstruction. The Chinese government has established a complete organization and management system from the central government to the local levels, so as to make the maximum use of the advantages of the top-down administrative system of government departments. The comprehensive rectification work in rural areas has effectively promoted the development of the local water supply and sanitary latrines renovation as well as the operation and management standardization of water supply projects. The integrated mode of investment, operation and management has laid a solid foundation for the implementation of the rural water supply and sanitary latrines renovation project with the World Bank loan and cost recovery and loan repayment by levying water fee from the beneficiaries. 


Content :

2 Project design solution

2.1 Project Introduction

It is one of important measures of Chinas pro-poor strategy to active introduce international aid for the water supply and sanitation lavatories renovation in rural China. The international community has provided considerable support and assistance for the water supply and sanitation lavatories renovation of rural China, and the implementation of the international aid projects has achieved desirable results and experience. The World Bank has supported the poverty relief activities (e.g., rural water supply, sanitation lavatories renovation, health education and capability building) of the Chinese government mainly by providing concession loans. The implementation of the water supply and sanitation project in poor areas of rural China with the World Bank loan set an example for the international cooperation project on poverty reduction in rural China.

China has successively implemented the World Bank Loan Projects in four phases from 1985 to 2004. The World Bank loan projects have been implemented in 178 counties of 18 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities throughout China. The phase I project merely involved rural water supply, and the projects of the subsequent three phases were supplemented with the contents of sanitation latrines renovation and health education. According to the national poverty alleviation program, the project of phase II, III and IV were scheduled to be implemented in the poverty-stricken counties in rural China which are key poverty reduction targets of the central and provincial governments. The projects with four phases have been implemented in 178 counties in 18 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities throughout China. A total of 686.2860 million USD of investment was put in for the projects, wherein 330.6 million USD was from the World Bank Loan. The project has built 6,042 centralized water supply systems and 65,772 decentralized water supply systems, improved the water supply situation of 24,3771 million people, wherein the tap-water beneficiaries accounted for 97.15%. In addition, the projects have constructed 64,500 sanitary toilets, school lavatories and household toilets, a large number of people have received the trainings on water supply, sanitation and health education.

2.2 Project objectives

2.2.1 Overall objectives

Rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation is an important part of the efforts made by the Chinese government to achieve the United Nations' “Millennium Development Goals”(MDGs), the penetration rate of the population benefited from the tap-water supply in rural China increased from the current 57% to 70% in 2010, the penetration rate of the sanitary latrines in rural households raised from the current 49% to 65% in 2010, thereby meeting the basic needs of allowing more and more poor rural residents to drink clean water, use sanitary toilets and live in a healthy environment. The Chinese Communist Party (CPC) and the central government have attached great importance to the rural water supply and sanitation work, and repeatedly issued documents indicating that “the people's governments at all levels shall strengthen leadership, formulate careful planning and make overall arrangements, the relevant government departments should provide close cooperation and proactive support to the work, and make efforts to promote the development of rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation. The 35th General Assembly of the United Nations launched the “International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade” activity in 1980. The Chinese government applauded and supported it, and decided to participate in the event. To this end, the central government approved the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee (NPHCC) (hereinafter referred as the National Patriotic Health Committee) to act as the National Action Committee of the “International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade” activity, which was responsible for organizing the activity in China through close collaboration with the relevant governmental agencies. The specific works was led and implemented by the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee Office in the Ministry of Health. Since then, the vast majority of rural China has launched a large-scale and well-planned rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation campaign focusing on addressing the secured drinkable water and sanitary toilets of the rural residents.

China has launched the 900 Million Farmers Health Education Action in 1994, which is an organic component of the aforementioned overall objectives. In order to further implement the Decision of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Health Reform and Development” and the “Guidance on Health Reform and Development in Rural Areas and promote the “900 Million Farmers Health Education Action, seven governmental departments including the Ministry of Health, National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee, the All-China Women's Federation and LGOP issued the “Five-Year Plan of 900 Million Farmers Health Education Action” in February 2002. The “Plan” stipulates the specific requirements and has provisions on the overall goals, specific objectives, strategy and measures. The overall goals are as follows: to establish and perfect the working mechanism of performing the Action with leadership of government, collaboration between multiple governmental departments and the participation of the whole society; vigorously popularize basic health knowledge to help rural residents establish a scientific, civilized and healthy lifestyle, and further improve the health condition and living quality of the rural inhabitants; promote the conservation and construction of ecological environment in rural areas, and facilitate the coordinated development between the rural sanitation and rural economy and society.

2.2.2 Phased goals

Taking 900 Million Farmers Health Education Action as an example, until 2005, (1) the rates of opening health education courses in rural primary and secondary schools in the east area, middle area and west area of China are expected to reach 90%, 80% and 70% respectively; (2) 90%, 70% and 50% of township hospitals and village clinics in the east area, middle area and west area of China respectively shall be capable of providing the local residents with health education services such as health counseling and behavioral intervention; (3) the training rates of action key members calculated by applying the township as a unit in the east area, middle area and west area of China reach 90%, 80% and 70% respectively; (4) the annual awareness rate of farmers on the core information of the action in the east area, middle area and west area of China are expected to reach 80%, 70% and 60% respectively; (5) the rates of forming relevant sanitary behaviors in the east area, middle area and west area of China are expected to reach 70%, 60% and 50% respectively; the annual awareness rate of the primary and secondary school students on the core information of the action in the east area, middle area and west area of China are expected to reach 75%, 65% and 55% respectively; (6) the rates of developing relevant healthy behaviors in the east area, middle area and west area of China are expected to reach 75%, 65% and 55% respectively; (7) no-smoking schools shall account for 20% of the primary and secondary schools; the smoking status of population over 15 years old shall be effectively controlled.

2.3 Project contents

2.3.1 Needs assessment

China is a developing agricultural country. According to the data of 2002 from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) of China, China had a rural population of 947 million, accounting for 74% of the total. Historically, the majority of rural residents drank water directly from generation to generation, or even drew water from the rivers, lakes, ponds and native wells a few kilometers away from home, and they had a habit of using dirty and tatty toilets and applying excrements as agricultural fertilizer, which resulted in the very poor drinking water hygiene conditions and a high incidence of intestinal infectious diseases and endemic disease, thus imposed a serious threat to the development of people's health and impeded rural economic and social development. It has been relatively prominent to suffer from disease due to drinking dirty water, living a poor life or returning to poverty due to illness. Since the People's Republic of China (PRC) was established half a century ago, the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) and the central government have attached great importance to the rural water supply and sanitation work, and repeatedly issued documents indicating that “the people's governments at all levels shall strengthen leadership, formulate careful planning and make overall arrangements, and the relevant government departments should provide close cooperation and proactive support to the work and make efforts to promote the development of rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation. The Chinese governments has organized and implemented rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation as one of key strategic elements of national poverty reduction in the two decades following the reform and opening up initiated in late 1970s, thereby powerfully promoting the considerable development of water supply and sanitation latrines renovation in China's poverty-stricken rural areas.

The 35th General Assembly of the United Nations launched the “International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade” activity in 1980, and the Chinese government applauded and supported it, and decided to participate in the activity. To this end, the central government approved the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee (NPHCC) (hereinafter referred as the National Patriotic Health Committee) to act as the National Action Committee of the “International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade” activity, which was responsible for organizing the activity in China by closely collaborating with the relevant governmental agencies. The specific works was led and implemented by the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee Office in the Ministry of Health. Since then, the vast land in rural China have launched a large-scale and well-planned rural water supply and sanitation latrines renovation campaign focusing on addressing the secured drinkable water and sanitary toilets of the rural residents. Many international assistance and cooperation projects aided by the World Bank, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have been implemented in 19 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China, accelerating the progress of water supply and sanitation latrines renovation in poverty-stricken area in rural China.

2.3.2 Project planning and distribution

A total of USD 686.2860 million was invested in the four phases of project, of which USD 330.6 million was from the World Bank loans, mainly supporting the project implementation in 178 counties of 18 provinces nationwide, benefiting a total of 24.3771 million people.

Phase I: 1985-1991. A total of 263.30 million yuan was invested in projects implemented in the poverty-stricken rural areas of Beijing, Liaoning, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Zhejiang and other provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.

Phase II: 1992-1998. A total of 19.0986 billion yuan was invested in projects implemented in Gansu, Guangxi, Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and other provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, benefiting 9.2471 million people;

Phase III: 1997-2003. A total of 140 million yuan was invested in the projects implemented in Hebei, Hubei, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Gansu, Inner Mongolia and other provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities;

Phase IV: 1999-2000. A total of 92 million yuan was invested in the project implemented in Anhui, Fujian, Hainan and Guizhou provinces, benefitting 3.10 million people.

Table 2-1, Overview of the World Bank loan project in four phases

Project

Credit and Loan No.

Investmentunit: 10,000 USD

Water supply project construction (sites)

Water supply beneficiary (unit: 10,000 people)

Building sanitary toilets (unit: 10,000)

Number of people receiving health education (Unit: 10,000)

Years of project implementation

Areas of project implementation

Total investment

Loan amount

Centralized water supply

Decentralized water supply

Total

1578-CHA

26.330

10.460

2.699

131

2.830

743

 

 

November 13, 1985 - June 30, 1991

Beijing, Liaoning, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Zhejiang 

2336-CHA

19.09860

11.000

2.077

63.304

65.381

924.71

3.93

940

July 23, 1992 - December 31, 1998

Gansu, Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang

N027-CHA

14.000

7.000

979

2.337

3.316

460

1.46

331.77

November 12, 1997 - December 31, 2003

Hebei, Hubei, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, Gansu

3233-CHA

9.200

4.600

287

 

287

310.00

1.06

232.5

November 24, 1999 - December 31, 2004

Anhui, Fujian, Hainan and Guizhou

Total

 

68.62860

33.060

6.042

65.772

71.814

2437.71

6.45

1504.27

 

 

 

2.3.3 Technical promotion

As rural China is short of designers of water supply project and technical guidelines on engineering design and operational management, the design of some centralized pipe network systems and water supply projects is not completely scientific and reasonable, and the operational management of a majority of

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