Karst Poverty and International Cooperation in Poverty Reduction - Implications of the Sino-Australian Cooperation Project in Yincheng, Guangxi
- poverty reduction approaches
- endogenous poverty alleviation
- vulnerable groups
- targeted poverty alleviation components
- supporting policies
Karst Poverty and International Cooperation in Poverty Reduction - Implications of the Sino-Australian Cooperation Project in Yincheng, Guangxi
Title : Karst Poverty and International Cooperation in Poverty Reduction - Implications of the Sino-Australian Cooperation Project in Yincheng, Guangxi
Commencement Date : Mon Jan 01 2001--Fri Dec 31 2004
Implementing Agencies : KERP Project Office
Support Organizations :
Actuator : URS Corporation of Australia
Members of The :
CASE PROVIDER :
Sources of Funds :
Catalogue and Index :
Abstract Summary :
In 1997, the Chinese government submitted a project proposal on assisting the Chinese government’s environmental restoration and management and poverty reduction in karst area of Guangxi to the Australian government. In 1999, China and Australia sent experts to carry out field research in Guangxi, proved the feasibility of the project and determined to launch the project in Xincheng County concentrated with minority people with a serious problem of desertification. The total investment to the project was 60.5175 million yuan, of which 41.0175 million yuan (9.115 million Australian dollars) was from Australia and 19.5 million was from the Chinese party. The aid funds were provided by the Australian Government through Canberra ACT Australian Agency for International Development. The Chinese implementation agency is Xincheng County People's Government and the Australian regulatory agency is URS Sustainable Development Company. The two sides set up the Karst Environmental Rehabilitation Project Management Office (KERP Project Office) in Xincheng County. The project was designed to explore the community-based demonstration mode combining poverty alleviation with the governance of degenerated mountain areas. Launched in 2011, the project was completed in December 2005, lasting for five years.
KERP project is a kind of innovation to the previous international cooperation projects. With natural village as the basic unit, the comprehensive demonstration planning was formulated for 90 project villages of 34 administrative villages, combining environmental protection with poverty reduction, guaranteeing resource inputs. We constantly improved the participation methods, strived to develop farmers’ consciousness and skills for project participation and cultivate the community’s agricultural association in the process of project implementation, held a total of 1232 capacity building trainings for more than 60,000 person-times. Five years after the project implementation, the per capita income of the farmers in the project exceeded 855 yuan, up 31%. The closed forest area of the 30 surveyed villages reached 18500 mu, with an increase of 1.5-fold, and the artificial afforestation area expanded by 3.4 times. Xincheng Mode refers to the community-based sustainable demonstration mode combining the improvement of degenerated rocky mountain areas with poverty alleviation in nine poor towns of Xincheng County. This mode has an important reference value for how to accelerate the entire village advancement-based poverty alleviation and development and the construction of socialist new countryside in karst regions.
1.1 Basic information of Xincheng County
Xincheng County belonged to Liuzhou Prefecture in the past and is now a county of Laibin City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. At the lower reaches of Hongshui River in the central area of Guangxi, at east longitude of 108°24′ -109°06′ and northern latitude of 23°40′－24°23′, Xincheng is adjacent to Heshan City and Xingbin District of Laibin City in the southeast, close to Du’an County of Yihechi City in the west and Shanglin County of Nanning City in the south, connects Yizhou City in the north and Liujiang County of Liuzhou City in the northeast, and neighbors Mashan County of Nanning City in the southwest. In the developed area of karst topography, Xincheng County has many mountains and forests and is full of underground rivers and karst caves. It is high in the southeast and low in the west, and has many hills in the central area and manly plains and mountains as well. Meanwhile, Xincheng County has an arable land area of 29200 hectares, an effective irrigation area of 12,500 hectares, a cash crop area of 12,500 hectares, a forest area of 78,700 hectares, and a forest coverage rate of 30.7%. Covering a total land area of 2541 square kilometers, the county has five townships, eight towns and 130 village committees (neighborhoods). As of the end of 2010, the county had a total of 130969 households and 416611 people, of which 380095 were rural residents, and 380,000 were minority people including Zhuang, Yao, Mulao and Miao people. It had 15 ethnic groups including Zhuang, Han, Yao, Mulao, Miao, Hui, Man, etc., and Zhuang people accounted for 89.98%. Xincheng is a national key county for poverty alleviation and development in the new era.
1.1.1 Economic and social development situation of Xincheng County
Since 2003, the county’s GDP has increased significantly, soaring from 1.454 billion yuan to 3.157 billion yuan in 2008, with an annual growth of 17.6%; and its fiscal revenue has witnessed stable growth, increasing from 82.58 million yuan from 2003 to 234 million yuan in 2008, with an average annual growth of 22.5%.
1.1.Rural per capita net income of Xincheng County
Since 2005, the rural per capita net income of Xincheng County has been increasing year by year. In 2008, the county’s urban per capita disposable income was 13400 yuan, up 19.8%, exceeding 10,000 yuan for the first time; rural per capita net income was 3378 yuan, up 17.6%, exceeding 3000 yuan for the first time, and 2008 became the year that witnessed the most rapid development, the best quality and the greatest change in the history of Xincheng County.
1.1.3 Poverty situation of Xincheng County
Located in the rocky mountain area of Central Guangxi, Xincheng is now a national key county for poverty alleviation and development. After the poverty reduction activities of the party committees and governments at all levels, the county’s poverty-stricken people have been reduced year by year. According to the deployment of Guangxi government, the county focused on relocation in the poverty alleviation. Since 1994, it has relocated a total of 348 households and 1748 people to resettlement points of nine villages in Silian Town, Chengguan Town and Datang Town with good conditions, successfully completing the relocation task assigned by Guangxi government and passing the examination of the Inspection Team of Guangxi Autonomous Region Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development.
To make the immigrants live and work in peace and contentment and shake off poverty as soon as possible, Guangxi Autonomous Region Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development issued 1.025 million yuan to consolidate the relocation projects’ results and put in 306700 yuan of project funds in 2002 and 2003, built 200 biogas digesters for the resettlement villages, repaired irrigation canals of 4865 meters and set up one water lifting project to benefit 3417 households. In addition, the county raised funds of 921,000 yuan to support the planting of improved mulberry sapling of 16.5 ha, high-quality fruits of 20.6 ha, honeysuckle of 100 ha and high-quality corn of 32.5 ha, and purchased 248 bacon hogs for the rural households.
In 2004, the county invested 640,000 yuan in the construction of village roads, drinking water projects and stagnant water drainage projects in five resettlement points, further improved the infrastructure of the resettlement points and promoted the good-neighborly relations between the masses of the resettlement points and the surrounding villages. Through the relocation, it improved the immigrants’ production and living conditions significantly and basically addressed their food and clothing problems.
1.2 Information of Relevant Departments
1.2.1 KERP Project Office
In May 2001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region’s Government set up the Project Coordination Steering Group. Approved by the Coordination Steering Group, Guangxi Department of Commerce and Guangxi Leading Group Office of Poverty Alleviation jointly issued a document to designate Guangxi Foreign Capital Poverty Alleviation Project Management Center to be responsible for the implementation and management of the KERP projects. Composed of the leaders of ten relevant units, including Guangxi Department of Commerce, Guangxi Poverty Alleviation Office, etc., Guangxi Project Coordination Steering Group is responsible for helping address problems related to major events and relevant policies of the project, and organizing the experts in the fields of lava geology, agriculture, forestry and energy to provide consulting services for the project. Composed of the leaders of Xincheng County government and relevant departments and the heads of the Australian party’s expert panel, Xincheng County AusAID Project Leading Group mainly helps address problems in the process of project construction, and organizes and coordinates relevant technical departments to provide technical support for the project.
1.2.2 URS Corporation of Australia
URS Corporation of Australia is responsible for the project design and implementation, including: Preliminary selection of the administrative villages and project introduction to the farmers of the selected administrative villagers to enhance the sense of participation of the farmers; environmental investigation and resource assessment in the selected administrative villagers, and project promotion in some natural villages; communication and negotiation with farmers on the situation of selected villages, and the formulation of implementation plans; timely accepting villagers’ feedbacks, determining the planning and preparing the planning text; coordinating the investment and making further arrangements on the implementation plans through technical support; and monitoring and evaluation after project completion to ensure the dynamic and effective implementation of the program.
2 IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS & MAIN PRACTICES
2.1 Implementation process
2.2.1 Main practices of KERP Project Office
220.127.116.11 Improving the policy rules and regulations to strengthen the management of land use
To ensure the effective implementation of the KERP project, the KERP Project Office improved the policy rules and regulations to strengthen land use management. Meanwhile, it strengthened vegetation management, organized rational development and utilization of mountains to prevent further damage to the environment and achieve coordinated economic and environmental development; adopted special measures for some special regions, such as prohibiting grazing, wasteland reclamation and firewood felling; strengthened the management of barren mountains, made clear the use management right of the existing mountains and organized large-area afforestation; implemented returning farmland to forest in the areas not suitable for grain production to avoid solid erosion; and organized transformation of terraced fields and slopes for soil and water conservation.
18.104.22.168 Strengthening environmental protection policy advocacy to enhance farmers' awareness of environmental protection
It strived to raise community awareness of environmental protection and carried out artificial afforestation activities to accelerate the vegetation restoration and environmental governance in rocky mountain areas; strengthened public administration on daily environmental and village affairs and developed the village regulations for the public; and strengthened publicity on environmental protection to change the modes and behaviors of irrational use of natural resources.
22.214.171.124 Broadening the sources of income of farmers to promote the production and income growth of farmers
Through the introduction of improved varieties and the promotion of new technologies, it broadened the business scope of agriculture, explored new industrial structure for diversified production and management, assisted the implementation of some activities to increase the income of rural areas and farmers and reduce the impact of farmers’ production activities on environment. It organized technical trainings and capacity building activities, strengthened the management of livestock, and reared livestock in pens to reduce damage to the vegetations in mountain areas; organized forage grass growing to promote the development of aquaculture; encouraged planting with green manure and straw use for farmland to improve the land fertility; promoted improved varieties to improve land yields, and developed appropriate family-run income-generating small businesses to increase revenues and alleviate poverty.
126.96.36.199 Strengthening rural communities' infrastructure construction to improve the living environment of villagers
The Project Office vigorously strengthened road building and water supply project construction to improve the production and living conditions of rural communities, and constructed irrigation facilities to improve infrastructure conditions. For the farmers of the project area, the weak infrastructure and poor living conditions hindered their development. Infrastructure improvement will help expand the channels for farmers to communicate and contact with the outside work and provide a hardware basis for the villagers to increase production and get rich.
188.8.131.52 Strengthening demonstration and guidance and building model villages of communities
It strengthened demonstration work to guide the construction of model villages of communities. The activity contents of the comprehensive community development planning of the model villages include: the formulation of village-level participatory planning; land use and soil conservation; vegetation restoration and mountain management; forage planting and breeding management; small businesses; sustainable energy development; infrastructure construction, etc. Each project selected three natural villages as the model villages, for each of which about 130,000 yuan was invested, and no more than 400,000 yuan was invested in total for the administrative village. Investment in the sub-projects: 6% for the formulation of village-level participatory planning; 16% for land use and soil conservation; 17% for vegetation restoration and mountain management; 14% for forage planting and breeding management; 23% for small businesses; 14% for sustainable energy development, and 7% for infrastructure construction. Trainings accounted for about 25% of the demonstration activity. In the implementation of each project, it attached importance to the coordination of ecological benefits, social benefits and economic benefits. In short, each project implementation scheme attached importance to the scientific demonstration of the project feasibility and funds, striving to make every project a success, seeking for not only economic benefits but also social benefits, aiming at ensuring that the selected projects really have good economic benefits and promote the economic development of impoverished regions.
2.2.2 Main practices of URS Corporation
184.108.40.206 Based on the actual needs assessment
URS Corporation carried out scientific and targeted analysis of the actual needs of the project, and prepared four assessment reports respectively on social economy, natural resources, energy and land use as well as agricultural industry. In the demonstration of village development planning and design, starting from the assessment of natural resources and community development, the project prioritized the actual needs for community development, environmental rehabilitation and income generation and, on this basis, developed the targeted planning for the comprehensive development of natural villages.
220.127.116.11 Paying attention to scale and balance of the project layout
In the project implementation process, URS Corporation attached great importance to the layout scale and balance. It first stressed the scale effect: The township project area covered nine national poor towns in the karst mountain areas of Xincheng County and the model villages’ beneficiaries covered all the households of the villages. The project also paid attention to the layout balance: To make the villages and people equally benefit from the project, the project selected the same number of model villages from the tower and peak karst mountain areas of the project towns, implemented the same aid standard for each model village; and provided the same amount of aid funds for the rural households of each model village except paying special attention to the extremely poor.
18.104.22.168 Holding capacity-building training courses in line with the needs of the villagers to enhance professional skills of farmers
In the implementation process of the KERP project, URS Corporation held a total of 1232 capacity building trainings for more than 60,000 person-times, including 20 trainings for counties, 19 for towns, 12 for administrative villages, 16 for model villages and 1188 for villagers; issued 80,000 copies of technical data and project brochures, which played an important role in improving the cultural quality and professional skills of farmers.
22.214.171.124 Guiding villagers' full participation and paying equal attention to innovation and application
In the implementation process of the KERP project, URS Corporation used the participatory approach to guide villagers to fully participate. The basic goal of the participatory approach is to make all the villagers participate in the demonstration activity so that the KERP Project will achieve the following objectives: To enable the villagers understand the causes of their poverty; to provide information to change farming practices and increase the income of villagers and reduce environmental degradation; and to help the villagers improve their skills and enhance their confidence in the face of change.
The project design emphasizes "people-oriented development" and makes the strengthening of capacity building as its basic strategy to ensure the sustainable development of the project. The project design proposed to increase the skills of agricultural service organizations, promote new varieties and new technologies, and help model village and households implement effective land use planning and income-generating schemes. The development planning of model villages designed small business projects and encouraged farmers to select and develop resources-based, market-oriented planting or processing projects to increase profit and increase income of poor households. The project not only takes the full participation of farmers as the premise for project construction, and stresses the involvement of all stakeholders. Meanwhile, the project design also paid attention to practicality and gave full consideration to the low cultural quality and skills of the farmers in poor mountain areas.
126.96.36.199 Promoting alternative energy technologies to improve farmers' living standards
URS Corporation actively encouraged and promoted the use of alternative energy technologies to gradually improve the living standards of farmers; developed sustainable energy to reduce pressure on environment caused by the energy needs of rural living; constructed biogas digesters and fuel-saving stoves, encouraged rural households with certain conditions to install solar power facilities, encouraged pig breeding, reduced the use of firewood and turf, saved time for income-generating activities, and improved farmers’ production skills and ability to get rich.
188.8.131.52 Community-oriented, aiming to improve farmers' ability
URS Corporation attached importance to community-oriented capacity building. KERP Project is a community-driven development project. Through project implementation, the community can not only stimulate the internal impetus for community development, but enhance farmers’ self-development awareness and ability and empower the farmers. As the appropriate approach and intervention measures are in line with the community’s current development situation and needs, a large number of villagers took part in the community-based project activities with a high sense of master, leading to a high success rate of the project. Environmental improvement was achieved through capacity building. KERP project developed and implemented a series of capacity building strategies to constantly improve the agency setting and capacity within the range of services and targets of the project. In such a way, the county departments and staff had the ability to develop long-term comprehensive rural development planning focusing on poverty reduction jointly with the villagers. At the same time, it aims to continuously improve the self-development capabilities of the target communities and groups in the implementation process of this project.
3 Implementation Effect
3.1 Significantly alleviated the poverty in the project area
Through the management of mountains, the improvement of new varieties and the operation of small businesses (including planting, farming and small-scale processing enterprises, etc.), the project improved agricultural production, changed the planting and breeding structure and income source structure of the poor in the project area, and thus played an important role in increasing farmers’ income and reducing poverty. According to the field survey on 31 project villages involved in the project implementation in 2002 and 2003, before the project implementation, the rural per capita net income was only 649 yuan. In 2004, this figure soared to 856 yuan, with an increase of more than 200 yuan.
3.2 Obvious environmental restoration effect
With the implementation of the project, the environmental awareness has been advocated and raised and farmers began to recognize the relationship between environment and poverty and protect the environment consciously, and developed and obeyed the regulations on environmental protection, restricting environmental destruction to some extent. Along with the large-scale afforestation, the community’s ecological environment has been restored to some extent; the development and use of alternative sustainable energy reduced the pressure on ecological environment; the improvement of the planting and breeding structure and methods made the resource utilization more reasonable and reduced damage to the environment.
3.3 Laid a foundation for sustainable development of the community
The community-led development measures changed the role and behavior of the project area in the development, enhanced farmers’ confidence in self-development in the process of local knowledge training and innovation, enhanced farmers’ self-development ability and organization ability and improved the infrastructure of the community as well.
3.4 Significantly enhanced the project implementation capacity and the target groups’ self-development ability
Taking capacity building as a breakthrough, through multi-level consciousness, management and technical trainings on many aspects, the KERP Project enhanced the capabilities of the project organizers and executors and the villagers of the project area, such as the project construction and management ability of the project implementation unit, the technical levels and service capacity of relevant technical departments, the comprehensive quality and ability of the township government, the self-development ability of the project villages and the farmers in the villagers, and the government’s ability for sustainable use of resources and environment management, ensuring the successful implementation of the project, the realization of the project objectives and the sustainable development of the project results.
3.5 Promoted gender development
As the rural labors were mainly women in the project area, KERP Project mainly formulated the gender development strategy. First, it stressed that the project regulatory agencies must have some female workers and hold gender consciousness training and gender analysis training to improve the gender sensitivity of the project executors and technical promotion personnel; secondly, it emphasized that we must pay attention to gender development in different stages and links of the project period and establish appropriate mechanisms to make women’s opinions affect decision making; thirdly, the project paid attention to women’s special needs and was conducive to the development of women. The implementation of these gender development strategies improved the gender sensitivity of the relevant groups and especially the beneficiaries of the project, promoted the development of women in many aspects and enhanced the status of women.
4 Existing Problems
4.1 Community-based organizations have a weak capacity
Currently, community-based organizations have a weak capacity and the vast majority of rural communities do not have any organizations. The villagers have their village heads or villager team heads, but the heads mainly assist the village committees in the implementation of the family planning and the distribution of relief materials and few of them really play a role in lifting the masses out of poverty. Without strong leadership, plus the poverty situation of the masses, the community has a rather weak economic foundation, relies heavily on the local government on public affairs and public facility construction and is facing many difficulties in achieving sustainable development through self-organization and self-development, requiring strengthening the construction of and guidance for community organizations.
4.2 A huge loss of rural elites
The outflow of a large number of rural young and middle-aged labors to the city has a lot of negative impact on the community development. By the end of 2006, 130 million rural labors served as migrant workers in other towns, accounting for 80.8% of the total. Some members of model villages’ implementation teams work in non-local area all year round, and the community activity system that was newly established has been gradually abandoned, affecting the sustainable community development.
4.3 Development of farmers’ specialized cooperative organizations is lagging behind
Farmers’ association can also promote the sustainable development of agriculture. Farmers’ technology association was established as required by the farmers, but it mainly relies on external (project or government) funding and support and does not have a high-quality head. The association’s president can hardly guide the healthy development of the association due to his low quality, so the association can hardly survive, and we do not suggest investing more funds or equipment to the association. From the perspective of development, however, farmers’ technology association makes the rural households involved in the same production activities help each other in the production and sales to jointly face the market risk, which is the only way to achieve agricultural modernization. Therefore, the current association is very important and should be supported.
5 Basic Experience
5.1 Promote sustainable development of the villagers by combining environmental protection with poverty reduction
Starting with the environmental management, KERP Project vigorously publicized environmental protection, guided local farmers to improve the local natural conditions and thus improve their production and living conditions, held capacity building trainings for them, guided them to engage in the business in line with local environment situation and thus lifted them out of poverty. This is suitable for the poverty alleviation and development of most regions with special circumstances.
5.2 Strengthen farmers’ technical training to enhance the basic quality and professional skills of the farmers
Strengthen farmers’ technical training to enhance the basic quality and professional skills of the farmers. The project office attached importance to the improvement of people’s quality, skills and social responsibility. The government’s anti-poverty projects, however, usually focus on “hardware” construction and neglect “software”. KERP mode provides a new choice for China’s poverty alleviation and development. As the KERP development planning is formulated with the participatory approach and methods, combining poverty reduction with environmental restoration, with sustainability as the purpose, it will certainly become the direction of China’s poverty alleviation and development work in the next stage.
5.3 Guide the villagers’ independent participation to enhance their consciousness of responsibility as the main body
Actively Guide the villagers’ independent participation to enhance their consciousness of responsibility as the main body. The participatory development concept, principle and method are used in the whole process of project design, implementation, management, monitoring and evaluation, which is the common ground of KERP projects and some international cooperation projects. The difference is that KERP project is designed to promote community-driven development, fully reflected by the project objective setting, the continuous improvement of the participatory approach, the significant enhancement of the collaborators’ participation consciousness and capacity, and the cultivation of farmers’ sense of participation and skills.
5.4 Strengthen dynamic adjustment and feedback of the project
Strengthen dynamic adjustment and feedback of the project and establish the community-based participatory monitoring and evaluation system. First, design and construct internal and external monitoring systems; secondly, the monitoring and evaluation experts and the community development working group assist the community build the community participatory system of monitoring and evaluation activities; thirdly, hold trainings of township project team to promote the participatory monitoring and evaluation activities in all project villages; fourthly, determine the monitoring indicators jointly with people in the community; fifthly, allow the participation of the masses through discussion of villager team meetings, timely feed back project progress and existing problems, summarize and review the project results and report relevant information to the township project team or the county project office through the village’s experimental team.
5.5 Cultivate community-based agricultural associations to improve the degree of organization of farmers
To support local farmers to open up a broader market for higher profits in the implementation of micro-enterprise projects, the KERP Project took the cultivation of community-based organizations as an important task. First, made policy advocacy on farmers’ associations; second, organized villagers to visit the nearby villages and counties where farmers’ associations develop well; third, invited economists to work in the project community and help prepare feasible plans for the development of farmers’ association, encouraged farmers to set up organizations and guided them to improve the production mode with the association’s management mode.
6 Promotion value
6.1 Make innovations to the poverty alleviation mechanism and introduce the concept of community-driven development
Community-driven development: Communities can control and use the resources affecting their survival and development and have the decision-making power for determining these resources’ utilization modes and management methods in the process of community development. It means that with the support of the relevant government departments and non-governmental organizations or under the guidance of experts or technical personnel, communities will fulfil their rights, obligations and responsibilities for project proposal, planning, implementation, management, maintenance and evaluation, including their direct control and management of the communities’ resources and their responsibilities for the use and management of external resources. In the practice of the KERP project in Xincheng County, the implementation results were obvious. Under the leadership of the community, making farmers the main body, the project respected farmers’ wishes, believed their potential, and allowed them to get involved in project construction through discussion, analysis, practices and trainings, giving full play to their potential. In such a way, the villagers knew who benefited from the development. Recognizing the knowledge and capacity differences between people, they strived to compensate for the lack of personal ability through participating in the activities, conducive to the formation of consensus to achieve the development goals through concerted actions.
6.2 Integrate environmental protection into the poverty alleviation
Adhere to the combination between rocky desertification control and poverty alleviation and development, promote development through governance and strengthen the management through development to achieve the coordinated development of governance and development and gradually achieve the goal of lifting most of farmers living in rocky deserted areas out of poverty. To achieve poverty alleviation and development through ecological management, we must use the concept of sustainable development and raise the ecological functions of rocky desertification to embark on a path of poverty alleviation and development. Seen from the special ecological environment of rocky desertification area, to address rural poverty, we must establish an efficiency mechanism combining ecological construction with anti-poverty work. Compared with other international cooperation projects, the innovations of the community-based governance and development of KERP project lie in: With village as the basic unit of the project, highlighting the combination between environmental rehabilitation and poverty alleviation to ensure adequate inputs of resources. Practice has proved that these characteristics are more adaptable to the actual situation and development status of the karst mountain areas.
6.3 Create the rural community’s participatory poverty alleviation mode for sustainable development
In the promotion of the sustainable agricultural development mode of the karst areas of Xincheng County, through the introduction of "participatory" approach and development idea, we creatively and selectively combined the participatory theory and approach with the objective social, economic and ecological conditions of karst regions, allowed all participants master and develop the "participatory" approach and skills in practice and constantly summarize the experience and lessons, and explore the "participatory" sustainable economic development in rural areas of karst regions in practice to achieve ecological recovery and sustainable development of rural communities with rapid social and cultural development. Through such a mechanism, the villagers actively got involved in the project construction and the project achieved significant results. The basic goal of the participatory approach is to enable all the villagers participate in the demonstration activity so that the KERP Project will achieve the following objectives: To enable the villagers understand the causes of their poverty; to provide information to change farming practices and increase the income of villagers and reduce environmental degradation; and to help the villagers improve their skills and enhance their confidence in the face of change.
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