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Poverty Alleviation Through “Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals” - Stories of Sanpai Village, Liannan County, Qingyuan, Guangdong

Poverty Alleviation Through “Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals” - Stories of Sanpai Village, Liannan County, Qingyuan, Guangdong

Cover and Title Page Catalogue and Summary Main Body

Title : Poverty Alleviation Through “Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals” - Stories of Sanpai Village, Liannan County, Qingyuan, Guangdong

Commencement Date : --

Implementing Agencies : local government

Support Organizations : Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau

Actuator :

Members of The :

Contact :

CASE PROVIDER :

Name :

Contact :

Sources of Funds :

Catalogue and Index :

Abstract Summary :

1 Introduction 175 1.1Basic information of Guangdong 175 1.2 Basic information of relevant departments 175 3Main practices 178 3.1Main practices of Guangdong Provincial Government 178 3.2 Main practices of Qingyuan City Government 180 3.3 Main practices of village-stationed working team 181 4 Implementation Effect 183 4.1Lifted all farmers of Sanpai Village out of poverty 183 4.2A significant increase in per capita net income and collective income of poor villages 183 4.3A significant deline in the province’s regional development coefficient of variation 183 5 Existing Problems 183 5.1Inadequate risk response, difficult to ensure the sustainability of poverty reduction 183 5.2Lack of social resources mobilization, high government finance cost 184 5.3Lack of exit mechanism for dynamic management of poverty 184 6 Basic Experience 184 6.1 Government-led, multi-stakeholder involvement 184 6.2 Fixed-point poverty alleviation, determine support units 185 6.3Focus on “blood-making” poverty alleviation to enhance farmers’ self-development capacity 185 6.4Focus on “planning” for accurate poverty alleviation 185 6.5Focus on “assessment” with responsibilities assigned to individuals 186 6.6Focus on accountability, with clear rewards and punishments 186 6.7Focus on long-term effect, establish a long-term poverty alleviation mechanism 187 6.8 Focus on advocacy, mobilize the whole society to participate 187 6.9 Set up “Guangdong Poverty Alleviation Day” and raise social capital 187 7 Promotion value 188 7.1Achieve precise poverty alleviation through the poor household “targeting” mechanism 188 7.2The village-statioed cadre system makes clear the “individual responsibility” of anti-poverty work 188 7.3A complete accountability system and good incentives and disincentives 188 8 Implementation conditions 189 8.1Good economic development situation of the support units 189 8.2Centralized central fiscal management system 189 8.3Powerful government bureaucracy and high attention of the support units’ leaders to poverty alleviation 189 9 References 190 10 Pictures and tables 192 With strong support of Guangdong Provincial Party Secretary Wang Yang, Guangdong’s poverty alleviation and development mode of "Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals" has been successfully implemented in the impoverished regions of Guangdong Province and achieved remarkable results. "Planning for Households" refers to making clear the actual poverty situation of poor households. Procedure: Rural households apply, the village committee verifies the information, holds a village meeting or villagers' representative meeting for discussion, and reports to the township people's government, which then reports to the county people's government for approval and to the prefecture-level people's government for registration, finally relevant cadres are dispatched to enter the data of the registered poor into computer for standardized management to facilitate the poverty targeting. "Responsibility to Individuals": Designate one unit to be responsible for the poverty reduction of one impoverished village, and this unit shall send one cadre to stay in the village as the "coordinator" between the aid unit and the poor village to carry out the anti-poverty work. The cadre sent to the poor village is the person directly responsible for the "Shuangdao" poverty alleviation and the "top leader" of the relevant unit is also responsible for the poverty reduction work and should be blamed or rewarded for the poverty reduction effects. These support units include the administrative units in Guangdong directly under the central or provincial government, the relevant units of developed areas in the Pearl River Delta and the relevant units of the cities and counties where the impoverished villages are located. The cadres usually adopt a variety of ways to help the poor villages and households shake off poverty, including industrial poverty alleviation, education-based poverty alleviation, infrastructure construction-oriented poverty alleviation and financial poverty alleviation, etc. In addition, these cadres are also required to create files for the poor households and enter the anti-poverty work-related information into computer. Guangdong’s “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation lifted all the farmers of Sanpai Village in Liannan County out of poverty, significantly increased the per capita net income and collective revenue of the village, reduced the province's regional development coefficient of variation and achieved remarkable results. The accurate poverty targeting system, village-stationed cadre system and the complete accountability system established through the “Shuangdao” mode has great promotion value.
1 Introduction 175 1.1Basic information of Guangdong 175 1.2 Basic information of relevant departments 175 3Main practices 178 3.1Main practices of Guangdong Provincial Government 178 3.2 Main practices of Qingyuan City Government 180 3.3 Main practices of village-stationed working team 181 4 Implementation Effect 183 4.1Lifted all farmers of Sanpai Village out of poverty 183 4.2A significant increase in per capita net income and collective income of poor villages 183 4.3A significant deline in the province’s regional development coefficient of variation 183 5 Existing Problems 183 5.1Inadequate risk response, difficult to ensure the sustainability of poverty reduction 183 5.2Lack of social resources mobilization, high government finance cost 184 5.3Lack of exit mechanism for dynamic management of poverty 184 6 Basic Experience 184 6.1 Government-led, multi-stakeholder involvement 184 6.2 Fixed-point poverty alleviation, determine support units 185 6.3Focus on “blood-making” poverty alleviation to enhance farmers’ self-development capacity 185 6.4Focus on “planning” for accurate poverty alleviation 185 6.5Focus on “assessment” with responsibilities assigned to individuals 186 6.6Focus on accountability, with clear rewards and punishments 186 6.7Focus on long-term effect, establish a long-term poverty alleviation mechanism 187 6.8 Focus on advocacy, mobilize the whole society to participate 187 6.9 Set up “Guangdong Poverty Alleviation Day” and raise social capital 187 7 Promotion value 188 7.1Achieve precise poverty alleviation through the poor household “targeting” mechanism 188 7.2The village-statioed cadre system makes clear the “individual responsibility” of anti-poverty work 188 7.3A complete accountability system and good incentives and disincentives 188 8 Implementation conditions 189 8.1Good economic development situation of the support units 189 8.2Centralized central fiscal management system 189 8.3Powerful government bureaucracy and high attention of the support units’ leaders to poverty alleviation 189 9 References 190 10 Pictures and tables 192 With strong support of Guangdong Provincial Party Secretary Wang Yang, Guangdong’s poverty alleviation and development mode of "Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals" has been successfully implemented in the impoverished regions of Guangdong Province and achieved remarkable results. "Planning for Households" refers to making clear the actual poverty situation of poor households. Procedure: Rural households apply, the village committee verifies the information, holds a village meeting or villagers' representative meeting for discussion, and reports to the township people's government, which then reports to the county people's government for approval and to the prefecture-level people's government for registration, finally relevant cadres are dispatched to enter the data of the registered poor into computer for standardized management to facilitate the poverty targeting. "Responsibility to Individuals": Designate one unit to be responsible for the poverty reduction of one impoverished village, and this unit shall send one cadre to stay in the village as the "coordinator" between the aid unit and the poor village to carry out the anti-poverty work. The cadre sent to the poor village is the person directly responsible for the "Shuangdao" poverty alleviation and the "top leader" of the relevant unit is also responsible for the poverty reduction work and should be blamed or rewarded for the poverty reduction effects. These support units include the administrative units in Guangdong directly under the central or provincial government, the relevant units of developed areas in the Pearl River Delta and the relevant units of the cities and counties where the impoverished villages are located. The cadres usually adopt a variety of ways to help the poor villages and households shake off poverty, including industrial poverty alleviation, education-based poverty alleviation, infrastructure construction-oriented poverty alleviation and financial poverty alleviation, etc. In addition, these cadres are also required to create files for the poor households and enter the anti-poverty work-related information into computer. Guangdong’s “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation lifted all the farmers of Sanpai Village in Liannan County out of poverty, significantly increased the per capita net income and collective revenue of the village, reduced the province's regional development coefficient of variation and achieved remarkable results. The accurate poverty targeting system, village-stationed cadre system and the complete accountability system established through the “Shuangdao” mode has great promotion value.

Introduction :

With a long history of opening up, the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong has a good location and developed economy. In contrast, the eastern, western and northern regions are backward and can be regarded as another world. In 2010, however, Guangdong implemented the “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation, greatly changed the poverty situation in the eastern, western and northern regions, lifted most of the poor households out of poverty, and increased their per capita income from 1000 yuan per year to 10,000 yuan per year. How did they manage it? This paper will describe in detail the implementation process of “Shuangdao” model, the main practices of relevant parties and the basic experience of this mode, and talk about the promotion value and implementation conditions of Shuangdao model.

1.1 BASIC INFORMATION of Guangdong

    Guangdong Province, named after Lingnan East Road and Guangnan East Road, referred to as "Guangdong", is a province in southern coastal area of Mainland China with Guangzhou as the capital. Located to the south of Nanling and at the bank of South Sea, Guangdong is adjacent to Hongkong, Macao, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi and Fujian, separated with Hainan by the sea, divided into four regions, namely the Pearl River Delta, East Guangdong, West Guangdong and North Guangdong, and has 21 provincial cities (2 sub-provincial cities and 19 prefectural cities) and 119 county-level administrative regions (59 city municipal districts, 21 county-level cities, 36 counties and 3 autonomous counties). Guangdong Province has a powerful economic strength. Since 1989, it has been ranking first in more than 30 provincial-level administrative regions of China in terms of GDP and has become the biggest economic province of China, with total economic aggregate accounting for 1/8 of the national, exceeding that of Hong Kong and Taiwan. Meanwhile, Guangdong is also the most competitive province in economic growth and has the strongest financial strength among the provinces in China. However, the internal economic development situation in its northern areas is characterized by serious inequality. Pearl River Delta develops well but the economic development in the east, west and north lags behind.

1.2Basic information of relevant departments

1.2.1 Basic information of Qingyuan City

As a prefecture-level city under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province, located in the central area of Guangdong Province and at the middle and upper reaches of North River, Qingyuan is adjacent to Shaoguan City in the north, Guangzhou in the southeast and south and Foshan City in the south, connects Zhaoqing City in the west, and is the open area of the Pearl River Delta and one of the political, economic and cultural centers in the northern mountain areas as well as the largest prefecture-level city of Guangdong Province. Approved by the State Council on January 7, 1988, Qingyuan City – a prefecture-level city was set up on February 28, 1988, and it has now Qingyuan Downtown (Qingcheng District) and Qingxin District, Fogang County, Yangshan County, Liannan Yao Autonomous County, Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County, and is also in charge of the affairs of Yingde City and Liande City. It has a total of two districts, two cities and four counties, covers a total land area of 19,000 square kilometers and has a population of 4.02 million.

1.2.2 Basic information of Liannan County

With the full name of Liannan Yao Autonomous County, located in the northwest part of Guangdong Province, Liannan County connects Lianzhou City in the northeast and Yangshan county in the southeast, borders on Huaiji County in the south, Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County in the west, and Hunan Jianghua Yao Autonomous County in the northwest, and has seven towns (Sanjiang, Zhaigang, Damaishan, Xiangping, Daping, Woshui and Sanpai) and 71 village committees, concentrated with Yao people. The county seat is in Sanjiang Town and is 236 km away from Guangzhou Highroad and 120 km away from Pingshi Railway Station after National Way 107 was put into operation. The place of residence of Yao people accounts for 80% of the county’s total area and Yao villages are scattered everywhere on the high mountains, so Liannan Yao Autonomous County is known as "One Hundred Li Yao Mountain". Yao people live in 88% of the mountain areas of the county, while Han people mainly live in Sanjiang Town, Zhaigang Town and other plain and hilly areas, accounting for 12% of the county area. According to the 2005 census, the county had a total of 156,523 people, of which 80,972 were Yao people, accounting for 50.73%; 1523 were Zhuang people, more than 70,000 were Han people, mainly Hakka, and the remaining were Hui, Man, Li, Yi, Tujia, Buyi and Korean people.

1.2.3 Basic information of Sanpai Village

   As a mountain area, Sanpai Village has little water and a small farmland area. Combined with the limestone topography, it is difficult to store water and the agricultural production here depends heavily on weather. The village’s per capita paddy field is only 0.2-0.3 mu. In March 2010, Wang Qingming was dispatched here as the village-stationed cadre. At that time, Sanpai Village had a total of 622 households and 2415 people, 9 natural villages and 13 production teams, 40 CPC members and two probationary CPC members, 141 poor households and 494 poor residents, including 82 households and 350 people with the ability and wish to work, 50 households and 135 people receiving subsistence allowances, and nine households and nine people covered by the five-guarantee system, and half of the rural households live in keekwilee-houses.

1.2.4 Introduction to Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau

Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau, also known as also known as China National Tobacco Corporation Guangdong Company, was founded in 1983 and is under the unified leadership of the State Tobacco Monopoly Bureau and China National Tobacco Corporation for vertical management as a departmental level unit, headquartered in the capital of Guangdong Province - Guangzhou City. Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau is mainly responsible for the province's tobacco production, sales and monopoly companies’ management. China National Tobacco Corporation Guangdong Company, however, is responsible for the management, supervision, coordination and services of the province's tobacco business enterprises, and has become a wholly subsidiary of China National Tobacco Corporation. As the fixed- point poverty alleviation unit of Sanpai Village, Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau has invested a total of 5.876 million yuan of poverty-relief funds in the village, of which 2.876 million yuan was issued in 2010 and three million yuan was issued in 2011. With powerful economic strength and a good network of resources, Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau has provided strong support for Wang Qingming and Sanpai Village in their anti-poverty work.

1.2.5 Introduction to Wang Qingming, Sanpai Village-stationed cadre

Wang Qingming, male, born in 1959, is a veteran and an employee of Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau. He came to Sanpai Village and started his village-stationed anti-poverty work on March 4, 2010, and left Sanpai Village in early 2013.


Content :

2 Implementation process

3 Main practices

3.1 Main practices of Guangdong Provincial Government

3.1.1 Give implementation opinions and provide implementation plan

The CPC Guangdong Provincial Committee and the General Office of Guangdong Provincial People's Government jointly issued the "Opinions on the Implementation of ‘Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals’ in Poverty Alleviation and Development of Guangdong Province", of which the main contents are as follows. First, make clear the objectives and tasks: Within three years (from 2009), basically achieve poverty reduction of 3409 impoverished villages in 83 counties (cities, districts) and 14 prefectural-level cities as well as the rural households with per capita annual net income of less than 1500 yuan (including 1500 yuan), increase the rural per capita net income of more than 80% of the poor to 2500 yuan or more, and change the backward situation of the impoverished villages involved. Second, make clear the requirements for the work: Identify the poor villages and poor households for the anti-poverty work, create a dynamic archive of impoverished villages and households; and assign the poverty alleviation responsibility to specific individuals; governments at all levels must increase financial anti-poverty funds; the underdeveloped cities and counties (cities, districts) in the east, west and north areas of Guangdong Province must actively adjust the fiscal expenditure structure in accordance with the requirements for establishing public finance, and effectively increase inputs in poverty alleviation and development; the financial sector should increase support for the construction of impoverished villages and the production development of poor households; local governments and relevant departments are also required to formulate incentive policies, announce the anti-poverty work information from time to time, mobilize all circles of society to get involved in the anti-poverty actions and gradually establish the competition mechanism for poverty-relief project declaration and implementation. Third, strengthen leadership and clarify responsibilities: Party and government leaders are the first to take the responsibility of Shuangdao work; and should also fully mobilize the initiative and enthusiasm of poor farmers for participating in poverty alleviation and development and communicate with the villagers, especially the poor in the formulation of the poverty alleviation planning so that farmers will take the initiative to participate in poverty alleviation and development.

The CPC Guangdong Provincial Committee and Guangdong Provincial People's Government jointly issued the "Opinions on the Implementation of Rural Poverty Alleviation and Development in Guangdong Province". Article I of the Measures states clearly that we must make the Shuangdao anti-poverty work a long-term, institutionalized system. A long-term mechanism for Shuangdao work must be established to ensure the completion of the three-year Shuangdao work; we must further promote the Shangdao work, increase financial support for village-level organizations, increase support for industry poverty alleviation, implement the entire village advancement project and the relocation project in high mountain areas, and continue to implement the renovation of dilapidated houses in rural poor areas. Meanwhile, we should strengthen the infrastructure construction in rural poor areas, actively promote the equalization of basic public services, vigorously promote the construction of rural social security systems, deepen the comprehensive rural reform in relatively poor areas, improve the pairing-off poverty alleviation mechanism and create a grand pattern of poverty alleviation participated by all circles of society. As for organizational guarantee, we must strengthen organizational leadership, strengthen grassroots organization construction, increase financial support and improve the reward and punishment mechanism. 

3.1.2 Proposal of village-stationed cadre support, strict management of cadre selection

The Organization Department of the CPC Guangdong Provincial Party Committee and the Guangdong Provincial Poverty Alleviation and Development Office issued the "Opinions on Further Promoting the Selection and Management of Village-stationed Cadres for ‘Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals’ in Poverty Alleviation and Development", which clarifies the stipulations on the selection and dispatch of village-stationed cadres, selection conditions and methods, relevant treatment and functions, with emphasis on pre-service training; makes clear the responsibilities of the support units, organizational departments, township and village party organizations and the village-stationed cadres, requires departments at all levels to strengthen organizational leadership and form joint force to promote the cadre-sending work for poverty alleviation.

3.1.3 Clarify responsibilities of relevant parties and promote evaluation and acceptance

The General Office of the CPC Guangdong Provincial Committee and the General Office of Guangdong Provincial People's Government issued the "Interim Measures on Accountability for Poverty Alleviation and Development Work in Guangdong Province", which has provisions as follows. First, make clear the support responsibility: Based on the actual situation of the aided areas and units, the aiding units should develop the overall planning and annual implementation plan on the assistance work, designate specific persons to take charge of the anti-poverty work of poor villages and households, raise funds by themselves and clarify the village-stationed cadres’ responsibilities for the aid work. Second, make clear the responsibility of the aided regions: The aided cities, counties (cities, districts) and town party committees and governments shall be responsible for developing the overall planning, annual plan and village aid measures on the Shuangdao work of local area and take the initiative to cooperate with the aiding units in the anti-poverty work to ensure the effective implementation of the fixed-point poverty alleviation. Third, develop a detailed system of accountability for the party committee and government leaders of the aiding and aided parties which are proven unqualified in the assessment, and ask them to resign in serious cases. 

Guangdong Provincial Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development and the Organization Department of the CPC Guangdong Provincial Committee issued the "Measures on the Evaluation of the ‘Planning for Households and Responsibilities to Individuals’ in the Poverty Alleviation and Development of Guangdong Province", which clear states that the Shuangdao work assessment has three categories of targets: First, the party and government leaders and principals of the 14 prefecture-level cities and 82 counties (cities, districts) where the Shuangdao work is implemented; second, the party and government leaders and principals of seven developed areas in Pearl River Delta; the leadership and main cadres of the provincial organs, enterprises, institutions, social groups and central units in Guangdong Province; third, the persons sent by the aiding units to be responsible for the aid work (village-stationed cadres). The Provincial Poverty Alleviation Office, the Organization Department of the Provincial Party Committee, the Provincial Working Committee, the Provincial Department of Supervision, the Provincial Department of Human Resources and Social Security and the Provincial Department of Finance jointly set up the Assessment Work Office to take charge of the annual evaluation of the fixed-point poverty alleviation work, covering the implementation and effectiveness of the fixed-point poverty alleviation. A hundred-mark system is implemented for the evaluation results: Excellent: above 90 (including 90); Good: 75-90 (including 75); Average: 60-75 (including 60); Poor: below 60 (excluding 60). The performance evaluation of the village-stationed cadres sent by the aiding units is organized by the system (unit) itself, and the assessment results shall be reported to the Provincial Poverty Alleviation Office, announced publicly combined with the provincial assessment results, and incorporated into the assessment of the implementation of scientific outlook on development of the relevant departments’ leaders to serve as a basis for the reward, punishment, assessment and appointment of cadres.

Guangdong Provincial Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development issued the "Regulations on the Assessment and Acceptance of the ‘Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals’ in the Poverty Alleviation and Development of Guangdong Province", which has detailed provisions on the assessment principles, contents and acceptance procedures. The hundred-mark system is implemented for the assessment results. All the units in violation of the Regulations that provide false data for the survey will be regarded as unqualified and the relevant unit or responsible person will be blamed and bear the responsibility according to "Interim Measures on Accountability for the Poverty Alleviation and Development Work in Guangdong Province" (Yue Ban Fa [2010] No. 25). 

3.2 Main practices of Qingyuan City Government

3.2.1 Adhere to three innovation to consolidate the foundation of Shuangdao work

To promote the "Shuangdao" work, Qingyuan municipal government first established the poverty targeting strategy, implemented the "targeted therapies", formulated development planning, implemented poverty reduction projects, issued mutual funds, implemented relocation projects and provided technology information directly for poor households, took the lead to create files for the poor to standardize and verified data management, registered the information of impoverished villages and poor households for dynamic management and achieved the goal of creating detailed data of all impoverished households, villages, towns and counties. Second, made innovations to the mechanisms, took the lead to establish the social assistance mechanism, industrial driving mechanism and supervision and assessment mechanism, and introduced the "Shuangdao" work implementation plan, supervision plan and evaluation methods. Third, made innovations to the forms, and vigorously promoted intellectual poverty alleviation, industry poverty alleviation and policy poverty alleviation, creating a grand pattern of poverty alleviation.

3.2.2 Explore five modes to increase income and reduce poverty

First, explore the establishment of agricultural industrialization mode to effectively improve the efficiency of agricultural production and the income growth of farmers. Focusing on making money, it created the poverty alleviation pattern of “industry development in impoverished villages, agricultural production by poor households and business development of poverty alleviation cadres”, guided and encouraged leading agricultural enterprises, research institutes and colleges to participate in poverty alleviation and development, and constantly improve the technology content of agricultural industrialization and enhance the leading role of leading agricultural enterprises through the construction of agricultural production bases, production skills training and industry demonstration. Currently, there are a total of 116 leading agricultural enterprises in the city, including 2 national poverty alleviation leading enterprises, 15 provincial poverty alleviation leading enterprises and 99 municipal poverty alleviation leading enterprises; nine national key enterprises for agricultural industrialization successively set up the production bases in the city. Meanwhile, the city created 15 famous brands, and 156 enterprises’ 211 products have passed the certification of pollution-free agricultural producing area.

Second, explore the establishment of the infrastructure construction-driven poverty alleviation pattern to improve the production and living conditions in poor areas. By significantly increasing capital investment and highlighting infrastructure construction in poor villages, it constantly improved the production and living conditions of the masses in poor areas; and established the financial poverty alleviation system composed of financial funds, financial credit funds and insurance funds to provide financial guarantee for the poor to develop production

Third, explore the establishment of the mutual fund mode to actively address the fund shortage for the production of poor households. It established the financial poverty alleviation system composed of financial funds, financial credit funds and insurance funds to provide financial guarantee for the poor to develop production. With mutual funds and microcredit as the carriers, with professional cooperatives as the platform, it actively addressed the production fund shortage and marketing problem of the poor and provided financial guarantee for the development of agricultural industrialization. Each village selected a leading project and set up an industrial base and a professional cooperative. Qingyuan City established the mechanism for increasing financial investment and implemented the long-term financial support system. The city invested a total of more than 30 million yuan of relief funds and established 228 pilot villages for mutual funds, 425 farmers’ professional cooperatives with 27500 members, promoting the development of nearly 40,000 rural households.

Fourth, explore the establishment of the labor transfer mode to increase the wage income of the poor. On the one hand, according to the needs of the talent market, with the national and provincial poverty alleviation training bases as the carrier, Qingyuan City actively organized vocational and technical education, strengthened cooperation with the factories and enterprises in the Pearl River Delta, and implemented the "order" skills training for job orientation to expand the income sources of poor households. On the other hand, making full use of their resources and advantages, many aiding units strived to serve as "matchmakers" for the employment of poor farmers, aiming to increase their wage income, and implemented the pre-relocation training project to help the immigrants master some labor skills before relocation to ensure that they’ll have a stable source of income after relocation and shake off poverty steadily.

Fifth, explore the establishment of the relocation promotion mode to accelerate the construction of “two major projects”. It introduced the “Guidance on the Relocation of the Villages with Poor Production and Living Conditions of Qingyuan City” and the guideline on the renovation of dilapidated houses of poor households to ensure the orderly implementation of the “two major projects” in the city. By increasing investment and strengthening supervision, the city focused on the control of project quality and progress to ensure the successful completion of the project.

3.2.3 Establish six mechanisms to consolidate the results of anti-poverty work

To consolidate the poverty alleviation results and achieve the goal of stable poverty reduction put forward by Guangdong Provincial Party Committee, Qingyuan City gradually established six long-term mechanisms for poverty alleviation and development, striving to embark on the path of poverty alleviation and development with local characteristics. In short, first, make overall deployments to promote the work and establish the “Shuangdao” policy guarantee mechanism; Second, implement the "blood making" poverty alleviation and establish the Shuangdao industry development mechanism; Third, tackle key problems and establish the Shuangdao financial service mechanism; Fourth, establish the Shuangdao skills training mechanism; Fifth, integrate relevant resources to establish the Shuangdao social poverty alleviation mechanism; Sixth, implement the responsibility and establish the Shuangdao assessment and incentive mechanism.

3.3 Main practices of village-stationed working team

3.3.1 Implement industrial poverty alleviation and establish the production bases to ensure steady development

Industry poverty alleviation is an important means to lift the poor households out of poverty and an effective way to prevent these households from returning to poverty. The village-stationed work teams and the village cadres jointly rented the original waste land that had been distributed to the rural households in the name of the village committee, carried out contiguous development and consolidation of land, then distributed the land to the poor based on their application to facilitate the management and investment, and achieved good results. The village-stationed cadres also helped Sanpai Village set up the sericulture, honeysuckle and peanut production bases, created the production mode of "base + farmers" to ensure that the rural households have stable industry development and promote the farming development of other rural households. First, set up fix sericulture bases of 420.5 mu for 36 rural households, including 32 poor households and four non-poor households, and set up 3610 square meters of silkworm rooms. Second, planted 368 mu of honeysuckle to increase the income of 54 poor households and 139 non-poor households. Third, planted 345.1 mu of high-yield peanuts, involving 168 households, of which 66 are poor households and 102 are non-poor households. Fourth, bred 3045 pigs, involving 97 households, of which 76 are poor households and 21 are non-poor households. Fifth, completed the transformation of 800 mu of tea-oil trees, involving 175 households, of which 23 are poor households and 152 are non-poor households.

3.3.2 Implement infrastructure construction-based poverty alleviation to improve the village appearance and promote new rural construction

The village-stationed cadres led Sanpai Village to invest 450,000 yuan in the reconstruction and decoration of the village committee office building of 540 square meters, purchased computers for all the village cadres, improved the functions of the library and meeting room and effectively improved the working conditions of the village cadres. In addition, the village hardened highroads of 1.8 km to resolve the road problem of more than 600 people of two natural villages; built farmland and canals of 5000 meters to address the irrigation problem of paddy fields; set up one village clinic to provide a better environment for villagers’ medical treatment; launched the renovation of dilapidated houses for 152 households, of which 62 households received donation of 13 million yuan from the Provincial Department of Civil Affairs and the Welfare Lottery Issuance Center and moved into the new villages, and 90 households’ houses were renovated by the poverty alleviation units and the villagers themselves. Besides, set up a Shuangdao new village nearby the Village Committee Office, dismantled the old houses for unified planning and construction of new houses and new villages, and planned to set up 53 new houses with an investment of more than 10 million yuan. Through a series of infrastructure construction projects, they finally improved the production and living conditions of rural areas and the villages took on a new look.

3.3.3 Implement education-oriented poverty alleviation to improve the teaching environment and teaching quality

Under the leadership of the village-stationed cadres, the village cadres organized the repairing of 10 dilapidated classrooms of primary schools, the construction of one basketball court and set up the Education Fund in the village committee with an annual investment of 100,000 yuan. In 2010, it issued 56,000 yuan of fellowship to 27 outstanding students, 3000 yuan per person per year for eight college students with a bachelor degree, 2000 yuan per person per year for 13junior college students, and 1000 yuan per person per year for six students of Qingyuan City No.1 Middle School. In 2011, it issued 52,000 yuan of fellowship to 25 outstanding students, including 8 college students with a bachelor degree, 11 junior college students and six students of Qingyuan City No.1 Middle School.

 

3.3.4 Promote archiving work to ensure accurate poverty targeting and information disclosure

In the anti-poverty work of Sanpai Village, archiving is an important task, which is also a distinct characteristic of Guangdongs Shuangdao anti-poverty work. As soon as the village-stationed cadres entered the village, they carried out field survey on the situation of poor households and entered relevant information into computer. After that, all the anti-poverty work has been recorded in this system for dynamic management and real time monitoring. Special investigators will carry out household survey every year and the survey results will be entered into the computer system by the village-stationed cadres.

4 Implementation Effect

4.1Lifted all farmers of Sanpai Village out of poverty

In March 2010, when Wang Qingming was sent to the village, Sanpai Village had 82 households with the ability and wish to work. As of the end of 2010, 62 households had shaken off poverty, and the per capita annual income of the poor households increased from 1098.32 yuan in 2009 to more than 11,000 yuan in 2011. As of the end of 2012, 100% of the poor households of Sanpai Village had shaken off poverty and the per capita net income amounted to 13068.48 yuan, creating a record in the anti-poverty work.

4.2A significant increase in per capita net income and collective income of poor villages

At the beginning of 2010, Guangdong Province had a total of 371,000 poor households and 1.558 million poor residents. By the end of 2010, the annual per capita net income of these poor people reached 2410 yuan, with an increase of 822 yuan, up 51.76%, of which 156,000 poor households and 693,000 people recorded an annual per capita net income of more than 2500 yuan, basically shaking off poverty, accounting for 42.1% and 44.5% of the total respectively. Meanwhile, the collective economy of 3409 poor villages witnessed stable growth and their total revenue amounted to 10,249 yuan, 30,100 yuan per village.

Taking Sanpai Village as an example, by the end of 2011, the per capita net income was 3612 yuan, with an increase of 430 yuan, up 13.5%. In 2011, the village’s collective income amounted to 81,600 yuan, with an increase of 36,000 yuan over 2010.

    4.3A significant decline in the province’s regional development coefficient of variation

By the end of 2012, the per capita net income of the poor covered by the poverty reduction program in the province reached 7762 yuan, with an increase of nearly four times over 2009; the collective income of the poor villages reached 110,900 yuan, with an increase of nearly 18 times. The province’s regional development coefficient of variation decline from 3.15:1 in 2007 to 2.83:1 in 2012. The Shuangdao model played a key role in narrowing the income gap between urban and rural areas.

5 Existing Problems

5.1 Inadequate risk response, difficult to ensure the sustainability of poverty reduction

During the three years in the village, no matter in the archiving work for the poor or the production problem addressing for the villagers, Wang Qingming always played an important role. As this is probably out of the capacity of the two committees of the village, when he left the village, Wang had to consider how to strengthen the capacity of the two committees of the village to continue the anti-poverty work, increase farmers’ income and prevent them from returning to poverty. It is, I believe, an issue facing most village-stationed cadres, and an issue to be considered by Guangdong Provincial Party Committee and Government.

In addition, the current “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation is mainly the work vigorously promoted by Guangdong Provincial Party Secretary Wang Yang. After Wang Yang left Guangdong, how can we continue the work? How is the work progress? We have no idea. It is another important test for the “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation work of Guangdong how to establish a set of complete long-term mechanisms for poverty alleviation. Currently, after all, “Shuangdao” work is a special “political task”, which can hardly be sustained as political task is for a certain period of time and the top leader will change regularly.

 

Moreover, currently, the assessment focuses on the evaluation of poverty reduction effects, ignores the evaluation of the sustainability of the poverty reduction effects, does not find the potential risks that may affect the sustainability of the poverty reduction effects, and ignores the establishment of a mechanism to respond to risks, which will probably make the households return to poverty again.

5.2 Lack of social resources mobilization, high government finance cost

As of the end of 2012, among the anti-poverty funds for Shuangdao work of Guangdong Province, 493 million yuan was social poverty alleviation funds, accounting for 21.7%; 120 million yuan was financial poverty alleviation funds, accounting for 0.005%, and the remaining was the government’s fiscal funds or self-raised funds. Thus, the funding sources are mainly government funds. As a costal developed province, therefore, Guangdong Province has huge potential of social poverty alleviation resources, and a lot of work needs to be done to mobilize all kinds of social resources for Shuangdao work. We should make positive innovations to the resource mobilization mechanism and fully mobilize all circles of society to get involved in the work. The funding sources of poverty alleviation should shift from fiscal funds to social funds, aiming to create a grand pattern of poverty alleviation integrating special fiscal funds, industrial funds and social funds for poverty reduction. 

5.3 Lack of exit mechanism for dynamic management of poverty

The “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation program is a three-year plan. With the support of the government, many poor households have shaken off poverty, and some original poor households are even richer than many non-poor households. Currently, however, there is not a reasonable exit mechanism of poor households, increasing the difficulty in accurate targeting of poverty. In future anti-poverty work, we should pay attention to the dynamic monitoring of poverty situation and make clear the dynamic features of the poor so that the limited poverty reduction resources will be used for the real poor to ensure the fairness of the anti-poverty work and achieve new improvement and innovation of the poverty reduction work.

6 Basic Experience

6.1Government-led, multi-stakeholder involvement

The great success of the anti-poverty wo rk of Sanpai Village is inseparable with the government leadership and the public participation. The Provincial Party Committee and Government and the Provincial Poverty Alleviation Office made the overall deployments. Guangdong Provincial Party Committee and the General Office of Guangdong Provincial Government joined issued the “Opinions on the Implementation of the ‘Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals’ in the Poverty Alleviation and Development Work of Guangdong Province”, Guangdong Provincial Poverty Alleviation Office issued the "Measures on the Assessment and Acceptance of the ‘Planning for Households and Responsibility to Individuals’ in Poverty Alleviation and Development", the Provincial Poverty Alleviation Office and the Organization Department of Guangdong Provincial Party Committee successively issued the "Regulations on the Management of Village-stationed Cadres for ‘Shuangdao” Poverty Alleviation and Development in Guangdong Province", the "Measures for the Assessment of ‘Shuangdao’ Poverty Alleviation and Development in Guangdong Province" and the "Interim Measures on Accountability for Poverty Alleviation and Development in Guangdong Province", etc. In addition, the central and provincial administrative institutions in Guangdong, the administrative departments and powerful enterprises in seven developed cities of the Pearl River Delta all participated in the “Shuangdao” work. Some powerful enterprises and institutions not only invested capital in the work, but also sent cadres to stay in the poor villages for long-term anti-poverty work, effectively promoting the poverty alleviation work.

6.2 Fixed-point poverty alleviation, determine support units

Guangdong Province mobilized some competitive provincial, city and county organs, enterprises and institutions to provide counterpart support for the poor villages and achieve resource complementarity, laying a foundation for precise poverty alleviation. These units provided a lot of financial, human and social resources and made a great contribution to the successful implementation of the “Shuangdao” work. Taking Sanpai Village as an example, its counterpart support unit is Guangdong Provincial Tobacco Monopoly Bureau (also called China National Tobacco Corporation Guangdong Company). This "one-for-one" pairing-off poverty alleviation mode made clear the responsibility of the aiding units, used poverty-relief funds for the real poor, and made it clear whom the poor village should turn to for help in the process of poverty reduction.

6.3 Focus on “blood-making” poverty alleviation to enhance farmers’ self-development capacity

 Adhering to the principle of measure adjustment based on actual situation and classified guidance, Guangdong Province implemented the policy of "one strategy for one village and one method for one household", formulated the targeted anti-poverty measures for specific households, developed programs and annual plan for each village, strived to address outstanding problems in the poverty reduction of impoverished villages and households and achieved good results in the anti-poverty work. Meanwhile, it insisted on the entire village advancement-based poverty alleviation and development, implemented industry poverty alleviation, education-based poverty alleviation, financial poverty alleviation and other “blood-making” poverty alleviation to improve the production and living conditions, and effectively enhanced the endogenous power and vitality of rural development. In terms of industry poverty alleviation, over the three years, it developed a total of 28868 economic development projects, covering agriculture, industry, trade and tourism, etc. In terms of infrastructure construction, all poor villages have hardened the highroads, equipped with cultural rooms, clinics, public toilets, refuse collection facilities and outdoor sports facilities; successfully completed the construction of 300 demonstration happy villages after entire village advancement, and completed the house rebuilding of 240,000 low-income families and the relocation of 22390 households of 1234 poor villages with poor production and living conditions.

6.4 Focus on “planning” for accurate poverty alleviation

In Guangdong’s “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation, through establishing the accurate targeting mechanism, the relevant units carried out household survey, carefully verified the situation of poor households on the basis of making clear the causes of poverty and the wishes of the poor for poverty reduction, created informatization management files and aid work files for 367,000 impoverished households and 1.586 million poor people, i.e. archiving and record creation, information enter into computer, etc., effectively addressing the problem in accurate targeting of poverty and creating detailed files for all poor villages, towns and counties. The province, cities, counties (cities, districts) and towns all have database, forming a real time online supervision system. Through the provincial poverty alleviation network, we can see the province’s dynamic situation of poverty alleviation, the basic information of each impoverished village and poor household, and the changes after the aid work. By combining accurate records management system with the supporting evaluation system, it made it possible for the top-down implementation of poverty alleviation.

6.5 Focus on “assessment” with responsibilities assigned to individuals

     The province established the monitoring mechanism for the assessment of “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation work. Taking the “Shuangdao” work as the “Top Leader” project, governments at all levels of the province all arranged the main leaders to take charge of the work.13 Provincial Committee members and deputy governors in charge of poverty reduction each were designated to support the poverty reduction of one city. Each of the provincial and central administrative institutions in Guangdong, the relevant units in seven developed cities of the Pearl River Delta and the relevant units of the cities / counties where the poor villages are located was designated to support one poor village. Established the monitoring mechanism for the assessment of “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation work, organized annual assessment and cross inspections, organized field fields of NPC deputies and incorporated the assessment results into the coverage of performance evaluation of the leadership and cadres.

To effectively implement the village-stationed cadre system, under the leadership of the Organization Department of Guangdong Provincial Party Committee, the province formulated a series of village-stationed cadre management systems, strictly implemented the systems on village-stationed cadre selection, management and functions, and encouraged and sent many outstanding young cadres to stay in the poor villages for poverty reduction, covering name list publicity, attendance register, leave approval, telephone inspection, etc.; clearly required that the cadres must live in the village all the time and cannot return to the city at night unless at weekends or asking for leave for special reasons. In such a way, the cadres lived in the village in a real sense. Assessment teams were organized from time to time to carry out evaluation of the village-stationed cadres and their work without informing in advance. Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Meizhou promoted the cadres with outstanding performance, stimulating the working enthusiasm of many village-stationed cadres. As a result, a large number of young cadres grew rapidly and became the backbone of their units. At the same time, the government would give a warning or change the cadres who did not do a good job in the poverty reduction, about whom the masses complained a lot.

6.6 Focus on accountability, with clear rewards and punishments

The province established strict accountability measures and all the principals and leaders who are proven unqualified for the work will be blamed and bear relevant responsibility. The rigorous evaluation system and accountability mechanism have brought heavy pressure on the local governments and relevant departments. The party committees and governments as well as relevant departments at all levels all took “Shuangdao” as a political task that must be accomplished, and they were ranked in the province through the evaluation with figures accurate to two decimal places. If the work is not well done, the county party secretary, county head, responsible leader and the top leader of the relevant unit will be blamed and even dismissed. Also, the units and individuals with outstanding performance in the assessment will be awarded and promoted.

6.7 Focus on long-term effect, establish a long-term poverty alleviation mechanism

Guangdong Province vigorously promoted the long-term institutionalized construction of the Shuangdao work for poverty alleviation and development. In November 2011, the Provincial People’s Congress adopted the "Guangdong Province Rural Poverty Alleviation and Development Ordinance", marking the poverty alleviation and development embarked on the path of legal and standardized development; the provincial government promulgated the "Implementation Opinions on Rural Poverty Alleviation and Development in Guangdong Province" to make overall planning and deployments on the poverty alleviation and development work in the period from 2011 to 2020; a series of long-term systems were set up on counterpart support, cadre sending for poor villages, financial support, social poverty alleviation and working team building, providing institutional guarantee for the poverty reduction among impoverished villages and households. Meanwhile, the province strived to enhance the level of social security, covering medical services, pension service, minimum living security and housing security, effectively addressing the prominent problem of returning to poverty due to illness and schooling.

6.8 Focus on advocacy, mobilize the whole society to participate

Every year, on different occasions, such as the congress of party representatives, the NPC and the CPPCC, Guangdong provincial government carries out a series of activities to make propagandas on “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation jointly with Nanfang Daily and Guangdong TV, and it has organized CCTV, Xinhua News Agency, People's Daily and other central and provincial major media to report the “Shuangdao” work of Guangdong Province for more than 500 times. CCTV news channel described the Shuangdao work through a report titled "Ten Thousand Cadres of Guangdong Worked in the Grassroots Units". Xinhua News Agency issued a news release to introduce Guangdong’s experience in Shuangdao work. People's Daily printed a long report titled "Guangdong: Large-scale Poverty Alleviation, Great Changes" on the front page. In addition, the album of "Toward Happiness" was printed on the Shuangdao work of Guangdong Province, a large-scale reportage titled "Big Love" was published on the Shuangdao model, the theoretical and practice essay collection of "Light up Happiness" on the Shuangdao work was prepared, the “Shuangdao” documentary "Spring in South Guangdong" was produced, the "Ten Models for ‘Shuangdao’ Poverty Alleviation in Guangdong" and the "Guangdong’s Poverty Alleviation in the Eyes of Reporters" were edited, etc. Meanwhile, jointly with Nanfang Daily, it edited and reported the "Happy Respondents" on Guangdong’s Shuangdao work, held the “Shuangdao” photography exhibition in 2012, and made propagandas on the advanced deeds of the village-stationed cadre Guo Jiannan. In addition, the local governments and relevant departments all vigorously promoted the poverty alleviation publicity in a variety of forms and reported Guangdong’s “Shuangdao” poverty alleviation work from different perspectives to help people understand and support the anti-poverty work. These propagandas have, to some extent, mobilized social resources to support the Shuangdao work.

10 PICTURES AND TABLES