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Poverty-relief relocation and ecological migration - Story of Ningxia’s Immigration to Diaozhuang

Poverty-relief relocation and ecological migration - Story of Ningxia’s Immigration to Diaozhuang

Cover and Title Page Catalogue and Summary Main Body

Title : Poverty-relief relocation and ecological migration - Story of Ningxia’s Immigration to Diaozhuang

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Abstract Summary :

1 Introduction 79 2 Implementation process 79 2.1 Immigration to Diaozhuang in the county 80 2.2Immigration to Diaozhuang outside the county 80 2.3 Diaozhuang for scattered resettlement 81 2.4Suburban immigration to Diaozhuang 81 2.5Immigration to Diaozhuang for agricultural production 81 2.6 East-West cooperation immigration to Diaozhuang 82 2.7Immigration to Diaozhuang for large water conservancy project construction 82 2.8 Ecological construction-based immigration 82 3 Main practices 83 3.1 national practices 83 3.2 local practices 83 4 Implementation Effect 86 4.1Obvious poverty reduction effect and continuous improvement in the level of productivity 86 4.2Migrants’ basic living is guaranteed, achieving livelihood improvement 86 4.3Coordinated social interests and consolidated social stability 87 4.4Ningxia Hui people witnessed development and the ethnic relations became more harmonious 87 4.5Constantly optimized the ecological environment, the sustainable development idea matured 87 5 Existing Problems 87 5.1Massive outflow of hotshots 87 5.2Hukou problem of spontaneous migrants cannot be addressed and the migrants’ education and management lag behind 88 5.3The presence of the phenomenon of immigration to avoid debt 88 6 Basic Experience 89 6.1Develop long-term planning and adhere to the guideline of sustainable development 89 6.2People-oriented mobilization of the enthusiasm of migrants 89 6.3Highlight key points and pay attention to the relocation-related work 89 6.4Make overall arrangements to increase institutional mechanism innovation 90 7 Promotion value 90 7.1Adhere to the concept of development-oriented relocation for poverty alleviation 90 7.2Adhere to the poverty alleviation mechanism characterized by government leadership and social participation 90 7.3Strengthen organizational leadership and implement territorial management of immigration to Diaozhuang 91 7.4Change the traditional concept of poverty alleviation in poor areas only 91 8 Implementation conditions 92 8.1Immigration-based poverty reduction can be implemented in the poor areas with fragile ecological environment 92 8.2Diversified migration patterns based on local conditions 93 8.3Increase in the government’s financial support 93 8.4Implement poverty alleviation and development rather than simple ex-situ relocation 93 9 References 95 10 Pictures 96 In the 1980s, the Chinese government began to implement planned and organized rural population migration on a voluntary base in some impoverished regions with harsh natural conditions and narrow living space that could not support local residents, moved the rural residents to the regions with good ecological environment and rich natural resources and provided sustained policy support to lift them out of poverty. The Project of immigration to Diaozhuang in the southern mountain area of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is a typical case of the central government’s this program in Ningxia. Under the leadership of the central government, based on local conditions, Ningnan Region explored the Tongxin Hexi Mode, Jingyuan Lucaowa Mode, Nanshan Taizi Mode and Huaxi Village Mode for the implementation of the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang, which later became the typical cases of China’s poverty-relief relocation and ecological migration, making great achievements in poverty alleviation and development. Since the implementation of Project of immigration to Diaozhuang, Ningxia lifted the people living in Ningnan Mountain Area out of poverty, alleviated the pressure on population environment of the out-migrating places, greatly boosted the economic development of the immigration destinations, attracted a lot of investment and effectively protected local ecological environment. We can say that Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang provided a new path of poverty alleviation and development for the regions with harsh living environment – getting rich and achieving development through poverty-relief relocation and ecological migration. Ningxia’s experience in immigration to Diaozhuang is of great value to the poverty alleviation and development in the regions with harsh living environment at home and abroad and has high promotion value.
1 Introduction 79 2 Implementation process 79 2.1 Immigration to Diaozhuang in the county 80 2.2Immigration to Diaozhuang outside the county 80 2.3 Diaozhuang for scattered resettlement 81 2.4Suburban immigration to Diaozhuang 81 2.5Immigration to Diaozhuang for agricultural production 81 2.6 East-West cooperation immigration to Diaozhuang 82 2.7Immigration to Diaozhuang for large water conservancy project construction 82 2.8 Ecological construction-based immigration 82 3 Main practices 83 3.1 national practices 83 3.2 local practices 83 4 Implementation Effect 86 4.1Obvious poverty reduction effect and continuous improvement in the level of productivity 86 4.2Migrants’ basic living is guaranteed, achieving livelihood improvement 86 4.3Coordinated social interests and consolidated social stability 87 4.4Ningxia Hui people witnessed development and the ethnic relations became more harmonious 87 4.5Constantly optimized the ecological environment, the sustainable development idea matured 87 5 Existing Problems 87 5.1Massive outflow of hotshots 87 5.2Hukou problem of spontaneous migrants cannot be addressed and the migrants’ education and management lag behind 88 5.3The presence of the phenomenon of immigration to avoid debt 88 6 Basic Experience 89 6.1Develop long-term planning and adhere to the guideline of sustainable development 89 6.2People-oriented mobilization of the enthusiasm of migrants 89 6.3Highlight key points and pay attention to the relocation-related work 89 6.4Make overall arrangements to increase institutional mechanism innovation 90 7 Promotion value 90 7.1Adhere to the concept of development-oriented relocation for poverty alleviation 90 7.2Adhere to the poverty alleviation mechanism characterized by government leadership and social participation 90 7.3Strengthen organizational leadership and implement territorial management of immigration to Diaozhuang 91 7.4Change the traditional concept of poverty alleviation in poor areas only 91 8 Implementation conditions 92 8.1Immigration-based poverty reduction can be implemented in the poor areas with fragile ecological environment 92 8.2Diversified migration patterns based on local conditions 93 8.3Increase in the government’s financial support 93 8.4Implement poverty alleviation and development rather than simple ex-situ relocation 93 9 References 95 10 Pictures 96 In the 1980s, the Chinese government began to implement planned and organized rural population migration on a voluntary base in some impoverished regions with harsh natural conditions and narrow living space that could not support local residents, moved the rural residents to the regions with good ecological environment and rich natural resources and provided sustained policy support to lift them out of poverty. The Project of immigration to Diaozhuang in the southern mountain area of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is a typical case of the central government’s this program in Ningxia. Under the leadership of the central government, based on local conditions, Ningnan Region explored the Tongxin Hexi Mode, Jingyuan Lucaowa Mode, Nanshan Taizi Mode and Huaxi Village Mode for the implementation of the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang, which later became the typical cases of China’s poverty-relief relocation and ecological migration, making great achievements in poverty alleviation and development. Since the implementation of Project of immigration to Diaozhuang, Ningxia lifted the people living in Ningnan Mountain Area out of poverty, alleviated the pressure on population environment of the out-migrating places, greatly boosted the economic development of the immigration destinations, attracted a lot of investment and effectively protected local ecological environment. We can say that Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang provided a new path of poverty alleviation and development for the regions with harsh living environment – getting rich and achieving development through poverty-relief relocation and ecological migration. Ningxia’s experience in immigration to Diaozhuang is of great value to the poverty alleviation and development in the regions with harsh living environment at home and abroad and has high promotion value.

Introduction :

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, referred to as Ning, is one of China's five autonomous regions. At the upper reaches of the Yellow River in West China, It is adjacent to Shaanxi Province in the east, close to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the west and north and connects Gansu Province in the south. It is 456 kilometers long from north to south and 250 kilometers wide from east to west, and covers a total land area of more than 66,000 square kilometers with Yinchuan as the capital. Located in North China at the "North-South axis", Ningxia is between North China Tableland, Alxa Tableland and Qilian Fold and has a complex geographical structure with highlands and mountains scattered everywhere. It is surrounded by Tengger Desert, Ulan Buh Desert and Mu Us Sandland from the west and north to the east and connects the Loess Plateau in the south. With a long and narrow terrain, Ningxia is high in the south and low in the north and has a big height gap in the west and many gentle slopes in the east. Located in the temperate inland arid and semi-arid area, Ningxia covers a land area of 66,400 square meters, and has a population of 5.3 million. Its plain area is 13,900 square meters,, mainly along the Yellow River in the northern part; its hills and mountains cover a land area of 27800 square meters, mainly in the south areas; and its deserts and watersheds cover an area of 10100 square meters. Over the years, the average annual rainfall, evaporation capacity and frost-free period here are not quite different from that of Ningbei Plain and Ningnan Mountain Area. Ningbei has an average rainfall of 202mm, evaporation of 1950mm and frost-free period of 161 days; and these three indicators of Ningnan are respectively 258mm, 1610mm and 182 days. Relying on the Yellow River, Ningbei Plain has developed irrigated agriculture and achieved high and stable food yields. Facing the serious problem of water shortage, the agricultural production capacity in Ningnan Mountain Area is relatively low, and especially in dry years, crop failures are common phenomena.

The eight counties in the southern mountain areas of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Tongxin and Yanchi in Yinnan, Guyuan, Xiji, Haiyuan, Pengyang, Longde and Jingyuan in Guyuan Region) cover a total land area of 30,456 square kilometers, accounting for 58% of the total area of the autonomous region, and are one of the poorest regions of our country: The masses of these eight counties have been living in the closed social environment with harsh natural conditions and low productivity and cannot escape the vicious cycle of "the traditional agricultural economy – population adapted to low-level of economic development - low output - food shortage - low quality of agricultural commodities – low level of per capita income - social poverty - the traditional agricultural economy". In comparison, North Ningxia has fertile land, abundant sunshine, abundant resources, convenient irrigation facilities, and good conditions for agricultural development. As of 1983, it still had more than 2 million mu of cultivable wasteland to be developed. Since 1983, in accordance with the guideline of "making good use of local transportation conditions if possible and exploring paths when needed" of the State Council Leading Group of the "Three West" Construction, Ningxia Party Committee and Government made the major decision of implementing immigration to Diaozhuang. After two decades of efforts on relocation and development, the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang has basically achieved the goal of addressing the food and clothing problems and the anti-poverty work achieved initial results. The successful experience of Project of immigration to Diaozhuang in Ningnan Mountain Area is of significant reference value to the poverty alleviation and development in the regions with harsh ecological environment and has set a good example for the poverty y-relief relocation and ecological migration.

Content :

2 Implementation process

Ningxia’s immigration to Diaozhuang is a systematic and complex process, requiring cooperation of many parties. In the implementation process of the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang, Ningxia has explored eight modes for the project construction, namely the immigration to Diaozhuang construction in the county, immigration to Diaozhuang construction outside the county, Diaozhuang construction for scattered resettlement, suburban immigration to Diaozhuang construction, immigration to Diaozhuang construction for agricultural production, East-West cooperation immigration to Diaozhuang construction, immigration to Diaozhuang for large water conservancy project construction, and ecological construction-based Project of immigration to Diaozhuang. The specific implementation process is as follows:

2.1 Immigration to Diaozhuang in the county

In the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang in the southern mountain areas of Ningxia, the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang in the county covers the largest number of people, including Diaozhuang in the mountain areas and Diaozhuang in irrigated areas. Specific implementation process of the immigration to Diaozhuang in the county: (1) Diaozhuang in the mountain areas refers to the local new communities set up based on people’s migration between towns within the county or dryland soil’s reclamation into paddy soil as well as other water conservancy projects organized by the counties with certain conditions. The relocation distance is usually less than 50 kilometers, and no changes have taken place to the original ownership. They have similar cultural and psychological background with the original regions, require little investment, facilitating organizational leadership, develop rapidly and can almost achieve initial results through planting in the same year of relocation and address food and clothing problems in two years. In practice, such migration can be easily implemented, mainly covering Hexi and Hedong of Tongxin County, Xinglong, Gaoya and Li Wang of Haiyuan County as well as Qiying of Guyuan County. Hexi Town of Tongxin County made the most remarkable achievements. Hexi Town began to develop irrigated land in 1983. As of 1994, its gain output reached 45 million jin, with an increase of 23.7 times. According to the survey, it addressed the food and clothing problems of 96% of the rural households, and 40% of these rural households recorded per capita grain output of more than 500 kg and per capita income of more than 800 yuan, and embarked on the path to wealth. In the new irrigated area of Hexi, the arable land accounts for only 7% of the total ploughland of the county, and the grain output accounts for 52% of the total in normal years. Hexi played a demonstration role in poverty reduction of the whole county. (2) Diaozhuang in irrigated areas. The northern regions have also organized the immigration to Diaozhuang construction in the county and developed new irrigated areas near the old irrigated area, such as the six irrigated areas in Changtou Mountain of Zhongning County and Nanliangtaizi of Helan County, addressing the prominent contradiction between a big population and little land in some rural areas. Some rich farmers engaged in the development of new irrigated areas have also applied for contracting the development of new irrigated areas, covering farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery industry, creating high-level rural population migration and Diaozhuang construction activities.

2.2 Immigration to Diaozhuang outside the county

Specific implementation process of the immigration to Diaozhuang construction outside the county: The mountain districts / counties organize the masses of poor towns to develop a large wasteland in Yellow River Irrigation Area through food-for-work and set up new communities with the same names of original villages under the management of the original counties, towns and villages. The immigrants’ hukou and administrative relationship do not change for the moment and these immigrants are allowed to have homes in the two areas. The original counties and destination counties respectively perform their functions and cooperate with each other. When conditions permit, the relevant relations will be gradually transferred to the destination counties. Despite the long distance, due to the centralized settlement, the people of the new communities still maintain their original social psychology, cultural traditions and living habits, so this form of migration can be easily accepted by the masses, especially for Hui people who have strong Muslim religious idea and unique living habits. Such Diaozhuang projects were implemented in six regions, including Lucaowa of Yongning County with immigrants from Jingyuan County, Chaohu of Luoping County with immigrants from Longde County, and Dazhanchang of Zhongwei County with immigrants from Guyuan County, etc. As of 1992, a total of 384,000 mu of wasteland and 219,000 mu of agricultural land (excluding village, road and ditch) were used for the relocation of 78,000 people, and nine township regimes and supporting facilities were set up.

2.3 Diaozhuang for scattered resettlement

Diaozhuang for scattered resettlement is another important immigration to Diaozhuang mode and its implementation process is as follows: The original counties and destination counties jointly organize the relocation in a number of villages of the old irrigated areas with a large population and little land or the developed irrigation areas with poor management. The destination counties are responsible for the investment and farmland and housing construction, while the original counties organize the relocation. Such Diaozhuang is characterized by a large number of scattered immigrants and a small number of centralized immigrants. The original counties are responsible for the management of the masses’ living and relief work within two years. After two years, if the masses’ self-produced grain can maintain living, and management rights shall be transferred to the destination counties through friendly negotiation. Making good use of the developed land in the irrigation area for scattered settlement of the immigrants, such Diaozhuang project is also welcomed by the masses, covering Nanshantaizi of Zhongwei County with immigrants from Xiji County, Changshantou of Zhongning Countywith immigrants from Pengyang County, Wuduizi of Taole County with immigrants from Haiyuan County and Baitugangzi of Lingwu County with immigrants from Sankeliu, etc.

2.4 Suburban immigration to Diaozhuang

Such project has obvious location advantage and enjoys convenient traffic, good information channels, rich resources, developed second and tertiary industry, and rapid economic growth. As one of the typical suburban Project of immigration to Diaozhuangs, Longhu Immigration to Diaozhuang is located in the industrial hinterland of Shizuishan City and its implementation process covers three stages of development, namely the agricultural development stage, industrial development stage and the stage of agricultural and industrial development. In 2004, the per capita grain output of Longhu Immigration to Diaozhuang was 356 kg, per capita net income was 2223 yuan, and the food and clothing problems of 24,000 immigrants were resolved. Located in the suburb area of Yinchuan City, Lucaowa Diaozhuang recorded total agricultural output value of 31.7 million yuan in 1998 and total industrial output value of 9.02 million yuan. In 2004, the per capita grain output of Lucaowa Immigration to Diaozhuang was 548 kg, per capita net income was 1489 yuan, and the food and clothing problems of 28,000 immigrants were resolved.

2.5 Immigration to Diaozhuang for agricultural production

Such immigration to Diaozhuang has obvious development advantages in agricultural economy. Its specific implementation process is as follows: In the Yellow River Irrigation Area with relatively abundant land and water resources, vigorously develop agriculture with food production as the core. In the initial stage of construction, local governments attached importance to practical agricultural technology training of farmers, strengthened the immigrants’ awareness of agricultural development through science and technology and comprehensive development, and vigorously developed high-yield and high-quality agriculture to enhance the comprehensive agricultural development capability, making agriculture a competitive industry of Diaozhuang and thereby embarking on the path of sustainable development. In 2004, the immigration to Diaozhuang of Dazhanchang and Majialiang had per capita grain yield of more than 600 kg and per capita net income of 1485 Yuan. Currently, the food and clothing problems of more than 20,000 immigrants have be addressed completely. The situations of the immigration to Diaozhuang in Yueyahu, Langpiliang, Shipozi, Biandangou, Nanliang Taizi and Yuquanying are similar.

2.6 East-West cooperation immigration to Diaozhuang

As a new type of immigration to Diaozhuang, East-West cooperation immigration to Diaozhuang has its unique characteristics. It actively introduced capital, techniques and talents from the eastern areas, in accordance with the township planning, conducted the infrastructure construction, land development, relocation and industrial development since its inception, conducted integrated development and created the highest speed and partially high efficiency in the history of immigration to Diaozhuang construction of Ningxia. Huaxi Village of Ningxia is a sample village of immigration and development for East-West cooperation in Zhenbeipu of Yinchuan City jointly constructed by Huaxi Village of Jiangsu and Ningxia, characterized by a high starting-point of planning, high construction speed, centralized financial inputs and significant development benefits. The project planning was formulated in July 1995 and within three years, a total of 4300 people were relocated. From the very beginning, Huaxi Village of Ningxia introduced the market competition mechanism, made full use of the pro-poor policies and witnessed rapid development of the second and tertiary industry. Minning Village is built jointly by Fujian Province and Ningxia based on Yuquanying Diaozhuang of Yongning County. So far, 16,000 immigrants have moved in and 34300 mu of arable land has been developed, and the food and clothing problems of all the immigrants have been resolved.

2.7 Immigration to Diaozhuang for large water conservancy project construction

Such immigration to Diaozhuang gives full play to the leading role of large water conservancy projects in the construction of immigration Diaozhuan. Its specific implementation process is as follows: The autonomous region’s party committee and government implemented the Ningxia Poverty-relief Yellow River Pumping Project and set up a county-level large immigration area in Hongsipu Region. Ningxia Poverty-relief Yellow River Pumping Project was launched in 1998 and has developed more than 200,000 mu of land area and received 142,000 immigrants. In 2001, the crop planting area of Hongsipu was 101,000 mu, the per capita grain output was 439 kg, and the food and clothing problems of the masses for three years were resolved.

2.8 Ecological construction-based immigration

Such migration is designed to protect and restore natural ecosystems, suitable for the regions where living and ecological environment is seriously damaged with outstanding contractions between people and environment. Its implementation process covers three levels: passive population migration under the pressure of ecological environmental change; initiative population migration in a certain area to protect ecological resources and the environment; and the initiative population migration in a certain area to promote the coordinated development of various elements of ecosystems. "Ecological migration" is a result of the fact that the contemporary ecological problems have caused great concern of the public. Ningxia is one of the pilot areas of ecological migration. In 2002, the first batch of 19,000 immigrants were relocated in Ningxia. By the end of 2003, Ningxia had completed the relocation of a total of 105,780 people with a total investment of 319 million yuan, set up 15 new poverty-relief relocation bases in the Yellow River Irrigation Area and has achieved remarkable results. 

3 Main practices

The implementation of any pro-poor policy requires joint efforts of the central and local governments. Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang is no exception.

3.1 National Practices

To vigorously implement the Project of immigration to Diaozhuangs in the southern mountain areas of Ningxia, after careful demonstration and overall planning, the state formulated detailed immigration to Diaozhuang policies on the rational development of resources, the improvement of ecological environment, the establishment of immigrants’ new villages and central towns, the development of featured agriculture, aiming to boost economic, cultural and social development and improve the ecological environment as well. The contents of Ningxia’s immigration to Diaozhuang policy cover the following three aspects:

(1) Development and utilization of idle land resources to provide opportunities for the poor to shake off poverty

(2) Establishment of immigrants' villages and initial construction of a number of characteristic central towns. The new immigrant villages are mainly constructed in accordance with high standards with some housing subsidies from the government and immigration investment as the core. At the same time, a number of distinctive central towns with Diaozhuang are on rise in the wilderness and play a leading role in promoting the economic development of Diaozhuang.

(3) Developing Diaozhuang agriculture to form a number of characteristic efficient agricultural production bases. It can be seen that the policy making process is correct. First, it is necessary to formulate the policy. As local area has harsh natural conditions, it is necessary to relocate the residents when development is extremely restricted. Second, its policy goals are scientific and reasonable. It has clear objectives with local characteristics, and it is feasible and can be easily implemented in local area. Thus, the new development mode in line with local conditions has been developed based on local situation.

3.2 Local Practices

Under the guidance of national policy, based on the actual situation, after long-term exploration, the southern mountainous area of Ningxia have found their respective immigration to Diaozhuang modes and have different practices, achieving remarkable results. The immigration to Diaozhuang modes in the southern mountainous area of Ningxia fall into four categories, namely Tongxin Hexi Mode, Jingyuan Lucaowa Mode, Nanshan Taizi Mode and Ningxia Huaxi Village Mode.

3.2.1 Tongxin Hexi Mode

This is a form of immigration to Diaozhuang in the county. Specific practices: Poor counties constructed the immigration to Diaozhuang, transformed dry land into irrigated land, gave full play to the role and potential of county-level administration departments, under the leadership of the county government, based on the local land resourced and water conservancy irrigation conditions, developed overall planning and designed the immigration size and population size. After the relocation reached a certain size, the county government applied for approval of Ningxia Government for the establishment of township and village regulatory agencies. Advantages of this mode: high-speed development, high rate of returns on investment, and food and clothing problem addressing in two or three years.

Experiences and practices of Tongxin Hexi Mode: First, develop unified planning and make overall arrangements, focusing on the construction of a modern countryside. The construction of Diaozhuang is the process of constructing a new community. Under the principle of facilitating production and living and promoting overall development, the local government made unified arrangements and overall planning on the construction farmland, forest belts, roads, public facilities and village and township housing estates, rationalized the layout of service facilities such as township government, schools, hospitals, shops, banks, agricultural technical service stations, veterinary stations and local policy stations, and developed scientific and reasonable overall planning on the development of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry industry. Based on the water supply situation of the Yellow River Pumping Project, Hexi can develop a land area of 160,000 mu. Based on the actual situation of local area, the government determined the grain and oil planting area of 120,000 mu and grass planting area of 40,000 mu. As a result, the canals, roads, forests, farmland and villages are distributed in an orderly manner. Second, create a green Great Wall to ease the contradiction between man and nature. Under the control of dry climate, Tongxin County is dry and windy and has 24 windy days a year on average, at most 53 days, and 20 sandstorms per year, at most 45. With sparse vegetation, it has harsh natural environment and ecological environment, which is the most fundamental cause of poverty here. Since the development and construction of new irrigation areas, adhering to the guideline of grain growing after tree planting, it has constructed a total of 133 large-scale wind prevention and sand fixation forestry belts and 1792 land forestry belts, covering a land area of 12359 mu. The development of forestry industry prevented and controlled sandstorms, adjusted the microclimate, improved the ecological environment and increased potential of agriculture for sustainable development. Thirdly, gradually adjust the internal industrial structure of agriculture to constantly increase the income of farmers. The immigrants lived in high mountains in the past and did not have the concept of the commodity economy. After moving into the irrigation area with convenient traffic and smooth information channels, they got the idea of commodity production. While promoting grain production, based on the market demand, they adjusted the crop layout and achieved significant economic benefits in commodity production. In 1985 alone, they sold more than 2 million jin of commodity grain. At the same time, the farmers increased efforts on various business operation and gradually expanded the planting area of oilseed with high value added, and developed the melon, vegetable and fruit industry from scratch. In 1986 alone, the melon and vegetable planting area was expanded to 1500 mu, the fruit tree planting area reached 4000 mu, and the yard economy with high commodity rate emerged. Some farmers have gradually separated from planting and entered the circulation field. Fourth, implement scientific farming and continue to increase technology content of agriculture. The immigrants of Diaozhuang engaged in dry farming for a long time and do not have the knowledge and skills for agricultural irrigation, so they do not know how to develop irrigable land to increase the yield production per unit area and achieve good economic benefits with little investment. In this aspect, Hexi’s practices are: (1) Improve irrigation technology, implement scientific water use, change the large-area irrigation into small area irrigation in the new irrigated areas, and reduced farmland area from one mu to 0.2 mu. (2) Promote improved wheat varieties, launch corn interplanting twice a year rather than once a year, rationally apply fertilizer, increase organic fertilizer, implement mechanical sowing and crop rotation, increasing the output of wheat and corn. (3) Construct scientific experimental farmland. At the initial stage of irrigation area development, Ningxia Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences sent a work team to carry out experiments and give guidance on the farmland construction, explored a set of farming systems and crop layout suitable for the Yellow River Pumping Irrigation Area of Tongxin. As a result, all the people in the irrigation area changed their idea of paying high attention to summer crops and ignoring autumn crops, designed a rational layout for the summer and autumn crops to constantly increase food yield per mu and the total yield and improve the utilization rate of water conservancy facilities. (4) Attach importance to technical training and promotion. Starting from easy work, promote the training from scratch and focus on the training and guidance for demonstration households and agricultural technicians.

3.2.2 Jingyuan Lucaowa Mode

As a form of relocation to other counties, it mainly moves the farmers of impoverished areas in the southern mountain areas of Ningxia to Hetao Plain with good irrigation conditions of other counties. Its characteristics include: First, good social benefits. Taking into account the vital interests of the immigrants, it is an effective way to open up a variety of paths for making a living and develop their own potential. From the perspective of the original regions, it eases the population pressure and is conducive to the formation and development of a healthy ecological environment, conducive to the transformation of low-lying land, the afforestation of barren land and maintaining the ecological balance. Second, a large number of immigrants for centralized resettlement, and a close relationship between immigrants. The immigrants have common national religion, common social custom, common national psychology and language, and do not feel lonely. Third, adhere to the principle of voluntary relocation, fully respect for the wishes of migrants. The farmers apply for relocation voluntarily, the township government is responsible for the information verification and the county government is responsible for the approval. Nobody should be forced to relocate. The Diaozhuang migrants for centralized resettlement outside the county remain their original administrative relationship and have their original contracted land. The newly developed land can be contracted for a long time and the migrants can have homes in both areas. Those migrants who have practical difficulties or are unwilling to relocate can return to their original residence. Fourth, state support through preferential policies. The hydropower projects, schools and hospitals are constructed with government investment, and the farmland and solid preparation, relocation and housing construction enjoy state subsidies; the production and living expenses are mainly raised by the farmers themselves, supplemented by government assistance or Food-for-Work. As most of the migrants come from impoverished regions with a weak financial foundation, they were exempted from water charge and public funds and did not need to provide voluntary labor services at the initial stage after they move to the new communities. Some Diaozhuang migrants’ bases have even received assistance from the World Food Programme (WFP).

3.2.3 Nanshan Taizi Mode

This is a form of scattered immigration outside the county. After careful negotiation, some people in the southern mountain areas of Ningxia were relocated to the Diaozhuang in the counties of the Yellow River Water Diversion or Pumping Irrigation Area. Ningxia has three such Diaozhuang: the East and West part of Nanshan Taizi of Zhongwei with migrants from Xiji County, Wuduizi and Sankeliu of Taoyue with migrants from Haiyuan County and Changshantou Town of Zhongning County with migrants from Pengyang County. A total 7,300 migrants settled down in these three areas with an investment of 3 million yuan. So far, the migrants have developed 17,800 mu of land area, achieved grain yield of 3.57 million kg, per capita grain of 510 kg and per capita income of 338 yuan. Such Diaozhuang is characterized by a large area of scattered migrants and a small size of centralization. After the migrants moved to the new communities, production is arranged for them, and the local township government is responsible for the social security administration. The state issued 400 yuan per person for the migration. The original county allocated two mu of arable land (Nanshan Taizi of Zhongwei also allocated ten mu of forest or grassland per person for the migrants) for each of the immigrants. Meanwhile, each of the relocated households was provided two houses, a well or water cellar. The original counties set up the Diaozhuang Work Team to stay in the Diaozhuang for two or three years, responsible for the resettlement of the migrants and the contacts between the two counties.

3.2.4 Huaxi Village Mode

In the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang of the southern mountain area of Ningxia, Huaxi Village explored a unique ecological immigration mode with its own characteristics, known as Huaxi Village Mode. It is a high-level form of immigration to Diaozhuang and a new form of poverty alleviation with a high starting point characterized by mutual benefit. This mode is designed not only to develop wasteland and address food and clothing problems, but to promote the synchronous development of agriculture and industry, synchronous construction of towns and social welfare facilities, the synchronous development of environmental protection and construction, and the synchronous construction of material and spiritual civilization. So far, 500 rural households and 3000 people have moved here from Xiji, Haiyuan, Guyuan and Tongxin, more than 800 houses have been built, 3500 mu of land has been developed, 1500 mu of wasteland has been contracted for reclamation, 50,000 trees have been planted with a greening space of 1000 mu, and the construction of the newly developed land irrigation project has been completed. In 1996 alone, Huaxi Village planted 2130 mu of crops. Its high starting points: First, under the guideline of "capable persons’ leadership, project construction, labor services-based poverty alleviation", it implemented the hollow brick, original flat iron, buckwheat pillow and rare artcity projects, is constructing the rare earth chloride, agricultural machinery service center and channel irrigation mechanism project, and is stepping up preparations for the three-dimensional fertilizer, foundry coke, corn alcohol, wooden floor, cashmere factory, farms and sweater factory projects. Meanwhile, it has arranged nearly one hundred immigrants to practice in the relevant enterprises. Second, it attached importance to the construction of market towns, post and telecom and transportation. Huaxi Market Town has been initially set up and its tap water projects has been completed and put into operation. The immigrants’ communities have been equipped with production and living use electricity, the main pebble roads have been built, and 500 computerized telephone sets make it possible for Huaxi Village to obtain information from outside world. The Township Hospital funded by social investment has been put into operation, and the Hope School for children of migrant workers has been set up. In particular, the rare artcity has been set up with a small sum of investment, a high construction speed, a high cultural content, high social value and good social repercussions, creating a good image of Huaxi Village. Third, combining natural resources development with social resources development, combining food and clothing problem addressing with large-scale operation, combining conventional planting with high-tech application, and combining production development with the sightseeing demonstration. To promote the overall development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery industry, targeting at the high starting point of rural modernization, it strived to address the food and clothing problems in three years and construct the Yinchuan City vegetable, flower, meat production bases and the science and technology demonstration zone of rural development. Making full use of its location advantage –in Helan Mountain Tourism Area and Adjacent to Xixia Studia City, with the foundation for art city construction, through economic growth based on tourism development, the village strengthened the development of tourism resources and provided supporting services.

4 Implementation Effect

4.1 Obvious poverty reduction effect and continuous improvement in the level of productivity

By relocating the masses of the southern mountain areas to the northern regions with relatively good ecological environment, giving full play to the spirit of self-reliance and hard work and the landscape economy advantages of the destination area, through a variety of economic development models, Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang opened up new economic growth points in both agricultural and industrial area, explored a development path in line with local conditions relying on the local resources and environmental advantages, then found out the fundamental way to lift the immigrants out of poverty and help them get rich, not only reducing the burden on state relief, but developing production area, becoming a positive force for the immigrant areas to create social wealth.

4.2 Migrants’ basic living is guaranteed, achieving livelihood improvement

Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang has basically addressed the basic living problems of the immigrants, set up new houses, improved the living conditions and the supporting facilities and created basic production and living conditions for the immigrants. Meanwhile, making good use of the irrigation function of water conservancy facilities, the immigrants vigorously developed agricultural production, promoted the development of agricultural processing, extended the industry chain, increased the products’ value added, achieved income growth and improved their living standards. In addition, with their income growth, great changes have taken place to the immigrants’ ideas and educational structure. The immigrants have changed their traditional ideas and boldly explored the development idea. Besides, the education of the immigrants’ children has been guaranteed and the immigrants’ overall educational level has been constantly enhanced.

4.3 Coordinated social interests and consolidated social stability

Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang has narrowed the income gap between residents in southern mountain areas and northern regions and addressed the long-term unbalanced economic development. Through immigration to Diaozhuang, it achieved overall economic development, improved the living standards of migrants, well coordinated the interests of the masses and further narrowed the wealth gap between people. Meanwhile, contradictions among the people and other social conflicts are being handled properly, and social instability situation has been effectively mitigated, achieving social stability.

4.4 Ningxia Hui people witnessed development and the ethnic relations became more harmonious

Most of the immigrants covered by Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang are Hui people. This project has undoubtedly promoted the development of Hui people in Ningxia. Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang has benefited the Hui people in the southern mountain areas, improved their living conditions, achieved social and ecological benefits, adjusted the existing geographical pattern of “Southern Mountain Area – Northern Area”, made a contribution to the improvement of ethnic relationship in Ningxia and created an atmosphere for a more harmonious ethnic relationship in Ningxia.

4.5 Constantly optimized the ecological environment, the sustainable development idea matured

Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang has eased the contradiction between population and resources in Southern Mountain Area of Ningxia, effectively curbed the phenomenon of vegetation destruction, and effectively protected the ecological environment. In addition, adhering to the guideline of sustainable development, Ningxia does not simply stress economic development, but insists on the combination between economic development and ecological protection, promotes the development of the ecological economic system toward stable, efficient growth in an orderly manner, and boosted environmental protection and coordinated economic development, thereby achieving the win-win results.

5 Existing Problems

In the construction of Project of immigration to Diaozhuangs, Ningnan Mountain Area gave full play to the advantages of various regions, explored various modes for immigration to Diaozhuang construction and achieved remarkable results. In the implementation of Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuangs, however, there were also some problems that need to be resolved.

5.1 Massive outflow of hotshots

According to the survey, the regions with good effect of Diaozhuang migration are facing a serious problem of outflow of capable persons. Most of the farmers in Chaoyang Village, a new village in Tongxin County of Ningxia, for example, are craftsmen, former village cadres or technicians who moved from other places and were richer than others in the original residence. They have the funds and capacity for relocation and can soon get rich in the new communities. The left-behind are mainly extremely poor people with poor quality and a low intellectual level, greatly affecting the poverty reduction among the left-behind. Therefore, we should keep the workers with a high level of intelligence in the original regions by administrative means and with material interests to make them willing to contribute to the construction of poor mountain areas.  

5.2 Hukou problem of spontaneous migrants cannot be addressed and the migrantseducation and management lag behind

Due to the transfer of a large number of agricultural labors to the non-agricultural sector, some developed areas do not have enough agricultural labors, so nobody contracts the farmland, leading to the waste of a large arable land area. To prevent agricultural slowdown, developed areas accept the immigrants from poor areas. The local government departments have not reached a consensus on the Hukou problem of the spontaneous migrants from impoverished mountain areas, so the Hukou problem has not been resolved yet. Many migrants can only live in the warehouses or public houses of the villages, and their children’s education problem cannot be addressed.

On the other hand, the majority of the immigrant came from the southern mountain areas of Ningxia with a low educational level, backward ideas, weak awareness of modern agriculture and market operation and weak awareness of environmental protection, so there are many problems in the management of migrants. According to the survey, the problems include backward planting methods, vegetation destruction, old ideas, and even clan forces, fights and theft in vogue, and advanced agricultural production technology and sophisticated management concepts cannot be effective promoted. Some immigrants lack the spirit of hard work and return to original residence in the event of difficulties; some immigrants waste a lot of water and cannot do a good job of farmland management; some dig liquorice and graze sheep everywhere, seriously damaging the ecological environment.

5.3 The presence of the phenomenon of immigration to avoid debt

In the process of Diaozhuang migration, after moving into the new areas, some migrants did not or delayed to repay their original debts to other people or banks or credit unions, and some even took it as a means to avoid debts to move into Diaozhuang and believed that they had no relation to the original debts after they moved into the new communities. This phenomenon of evading debts occurs frequently. In the process of promoting immigration to Diaozhuang, strong financial support was needed, and most of the funds needed to be borrowed from credit unions or banks. Due to the phenomenon of evading debts, the banks and credit unions had many bad debts, and the phenomenon of evading debts made the banks and credit unions no longer trust the migrants and thus restrict the amount of loans. As a result, the really poor migrants cannot get enough loans, increasing the difficulty for the promotion of the Diaozhuang projects.

6 Basic Experience

The main experience of Diaozhuang policy is that ecological relocation is the only way to address the sustainable economic and social development of western poor areas. The following basic experience has significant reference value.

6.1 Develop long-term planning and adhere to the guideline of sustainable development

The southern mountain areas of Ningxia achieved remarkable results in the implementation of the Diaozhuang projects mainly because they always adhere to the guideline of sustainable development and strive to restore ecological environment and promote production development at the same time. It indicates that in the process of ecological relocation or poverty-relief relocation, we must adhere to the scientific outlook on development, take long-term governance and progressive improvement as an important task, formulate long-term planning, overcome the shortcoming of being short-sighted, attach importance to the restoration of ecological environment, the cultivation of characteristic leading industries, and the construction of market towns and major infrastructure, thereby embarking on the path for sustainable development of the western poor areas.

6.2 People-oriented mobilization of the enthusiasm of migrants

The success of the Diaozhuang project is inseparable from the migrants’ own efforts. Internal causes are the key and external causes play a role through internal causes, so it is very important to mobilize the migrants’ enthusiasm. In the process of promoting the relocation, we should combine government leadership with the positive role of farmers, mobilize farmers to get involved and make it clear to the farmers the economic results, effects, long-term benefits and ecological environment situation to enhance the farmers’ awareness of responsibility for participating and supporting the Diaozhuang project. Only in such a way can we make the Diaozhuang project really benefit the people.

6.3 Highlight key points and pay attention to the relocation-related work

As we all know, all major projects need to be promoted through accomplishing specific tasks. Project of immigration to Diaozhuang is no exception. Only after making in-depth analysis of these specific tasks, highlighting key points and making overall deployments on the work, can we really succeed in implementing the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang. Therefore, we should reasonably determine the "intensity" inputs and goals of the relevant work, while organizing immigration and constructing new villages, give priority to afforestation, production and living water supply, vegetation and ecological restoration, the development of characteristic industries and the construction of small towns, and pay attention to social harmony and stability and the development of social undertakings so that the immigrants will feel the warmth of the party and the government in the new environment, see hope for future development, and have higher enthusiasm for creating a happy new life.

6.4 Make overall arrangements to increase institutional mechanism innovation

Another successful experience of Diaozhuang project: Strengthen organizational leadership, effectively enhance the organization degree of migrants, be strict in controlling each link of the immigration work and make careful deployments for the relocation. Ningxia’s Project of immigration to Diaozhuang achieved high efficiency and high quality relying on the constant mechanism innovations. It indicates that the local governments should improve their work style, attach great importance to the migrants’ demands, guide and promote the relocation work in legal, administrative and economic means, make innovations to the management system of the immigration development zones, increase efforts on making innovations to the mechanisms and systems, adhere to the direction of “small government” and “big society” and adhere to management by law and democratic management to enhance the motive force for internal development of the immigrants’ new villages.

7 Promotion value

7.1 Adhere to the concept of development-oriented relocation for poverty alleviation

It has been a major issue of study of Ningxia Party Committee and Government to eliminate the poverty in the southern mountain areas and achieve the common prosperity of Hui and Han people. The implementation of immigration to Diaozhuang and off-site development is our realistic choice after summarizing the Diaozhuang practices of the masses, and a feasible way to shake off poverty. Different from the traditional relief-oriented poverty reduction, it mainly helps the migrants improve their basic production and living conditions and develop non-local resources and Diaozhuang economy to enhance their self-accumulation and self-development ability. According to the guideline of development-oriented relocation to Diaozhuang, the autonomous region government determined four principles: First, the out-migrating places must be rocky mountain areas, arid or semi-arid regions with harsh natural conditions and poor natural resources, and the migrants must be healthy young and middle-aged farmers with a certain educational level; Second, the immigration destinations must be new irrigation areas with rich land resources, plain terrain and good irrigation conditions; Third, adhere to the principle of immigrants’ voluntary relocation, fully respect farmers’ wishes and do not force anyone to relocate. To address farmers’ worries, the government allow farmers to have two homes in both the out-migrating places and the immigration destinations within two or three years, and their Hukou will be transferred to the Diaozhuang after three years; Fourth, implement the household poverty reduction measures, develop planting industry with market potential and economic benefits and the local agricultural processing industry to increase the income of immigrants and help them shake off poverty and have the ability to afford the immigration. These principles are not only suitable for the immigration in Ningxia, but have significantly reference value for future poverty alleviation through relocation to Diaozhuang in other regions.

7.2 Adhere to the poverty alleviation mechanism characterized by government leadership and social participation

In the implementation process of the relocation to Diaozhuang in the southern mountain areas of Ningxia, governments at all levels played a leading role, introduced various preferential policies and issued supporting funds, and played a key role in the project construction. Also, social forces played an important role and achieved remarkable results in promoting the implementation of many projects, such as the Langpiziliang project constructed with the World Bank loans, and the Shilabo Village Project in Dazhanchang Immigration Development Zone. Practice has proved that the mechanism of government leadership and social participation can broaden the sources of funding, accelerate the pace of relocation to Diaozhuang, make innovations to the investment and operation mechanism, introduce new development modes and improve the efficiency of poverty-relief funds. Also, it can help create an atmosphere of helping the poor in the whole society and is of great reference value for other domestic regions and even for other areas in the world.

7.3 Strengthen organizational leadership and implement territorial management of immigration to Diaozhuang

Immigration to Diaozhuang is a large social system project and can hardly be implemented without strong organizational leadership. In the implementation process of this project in the southern mountain areas of Ningxia, the autonomous government, all circles of society and the county and other rural governments all took the project as a major event to boost the economic and social development of Ningxia. Giving full play to the functions of government organizations, Ningxia dispatched a large number of cadres to work in the immigration zones to help solve migrants ‘production and living problems and mobilize social forces to donate for the immigration. At the same time, in order to address the poor management of the development office on the immigration project, Ningxia Party Committee decided to implement territorial management. Practice has proved that the territorial management and strengthening the organizational leadership of migrants’ new communities played a very important role in the successful implementation of the Project of immigration to Diaozhuang. It can shorten the transition period, reduce administrative costs, mobilize the enthusiasm and financial resources of local party and government departments, accelerate the pace of economic development of Diaozhuang and narrow the economic development gap between the masses and local areas, and is an important poverty alleviation experience with high promotion value.

7.4 Change the traditional concept of poverty alleviation in poor areas only

As we all know, due to the low levels of education and old ideas, the migrants have some stereotypes. For example, some of them are willing to suffer poverty rather than leave their home villages. These stereotypes have greatly hindered the implementation of the relocation to Diaozhuang. The Project of immigration to Diaozhuang of Ningxia, however, found a good solution to this problem. Through the successful experience of pilot relocation, governments at all levels set a good example for the migrants of the region, strived to persuade the migrants for relocation, actively implemented the relocation policies and resolved the worries of migrants so that the migrants felt at ease and actively cooperated in accelerating the project implementation. It can be said that Ningxia’s this practice is of significant reference value for other regions to resolve the worries of migrants in the implementation of relocation projects and has great promotion value.

8 Implementation conditions

Like the movement and development of anything else, the development of Project of immigration to Diaozhuangs has its inherent dynamic mechanism. In general, population migration is a result of the joint force of many positive factors of the original places. In addition to the efforts of the original places and the destinations, government leadership, social participation and the migrants themselves all played an important role in the implementation of the relocation to Diaozhuang. It was the driving force, pulling force, support and internal driving force that form the driving force mechanism of the Diaozhuang immigration under government leadership in Ningxia (shown as Figure 8-1). At the same time, in the implementation process of immigration to Diaozhuang, some conditions are necessary and indispensable, including:

8.1 Immigration-based poverty reduction can be implemented in the poor areas with fragile ecological environment

The successful implementation of the project of immigration to Diaozhuang resolved the long-term poverty problem of the southern mountain areas of Ningxia due to harsh ecological environment and provided a feasible way for other impoverished regions with fragile ecological environment to shake off poverty. Without necessary resources, the impoverished regions with adverse environment can hardly shake off poverty independently, thus falling into a vicious cycle of poverty and backwardness for generations. Due to the harsh environment, the masses in the poor areas were relocated to the regions with better conditions, aiming to shake off poverty and get rich. To some extent, therefore, pilot relocation is

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