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How Can We Achieve Poverty Reduction Through Labor Transfer? - Practices of Li County of Gansu Province

How Can We Achieve Poverty Reduction Through Labor Transfer? - Practices of Li County of Gansu Province

Cover and Title Page Catalogue and Summary Main Body

Title : How Can We Achieve Poverty Reduction Through Labor Transfer? - Practices of Li County of Gansu Province

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Abstract Summary :

1 Introduction 42 1.1 Basic information of li county 42 1.2 Basic information of li county labor office 43 1.3 Implementation conditions 44 2 Implementation process and Specific practices 45 2.1 development process 45 2.2 Specific practices 45 3 Implementation Effect 48 3.1 Broadened income sources and achieved revenue diversification 48 3.2 Promoted the development of agriculture and related industries 48 3.3 Improved the living standards and appearance of rural areas 48 3.4 Developed capable persons and contributed to the construction of home village 49 4 Existing Problems 49 4.1 Low technical quality of labors 49 4.2 Lack of labor rights awareness 49 4.3 Imperfect labor job security 50 4.4 Unsmooth channels for labor dispatch 50 5 Basic Experience 50 5.1 Establish an organizational network 51 5.2 Establish labor transfer bases 51 5.3 Cultivate intermediary organizations 51 5.4 Build labor service brands 51 6 Promotion value 52 6.1 Incorporate labor transfer into poverty alleviation and development 52 6.2 Make innovation to labor transfer model to achieve labor transfer-oriented poverty alleviation 52 6.3 Establish a new relationship between enterprises in labor transfer destinations and the farmers in labor transfer regions for a win-win situation 52 7 References 53 8 Pictures 54 Abstract:With the accelerated pace of reform and opening up and the establishment of the market economy system, labor transfer has become a unique economic phenomenon in the contemporary society. It came into being with the market economy, and promotes the development of market economy. In a certain sense, it has become an effective way for people in impoverished regions to shake off poverty. In recent years, the party committee and government of Li County of Gansu Province made the strategic decision of "developing labor service industry based on local resource advantages" and "promoting the development of the county through industries and enriching people through labor services" and, taking "reducing pressure on land and population" as a starting point, made labor transfer the most important industry and project to accelerate poverty alleviation and development and address the problems of "Three Rural Issues". Through government driving, capable persons’ leading, skills training and base construction, it changed the simple labor transfer into skilled labor transfer, and changed the short-term transfer into long-term organized transfer. To this end, Li County has established long-term cooperation of labor services with Beijing, Tianjin and Guangdong, organized the construction of 20 non-local labor service bases, created the domestic famous labor service brands of "Lixian Girl" and "Lixian Housekeeping Sister", achieved the labor transfer from West China to Southeast coastal areas, achieving the great transition from a "big county of labor services" to a "powerful country of labor services". Through poverty alleviation by labor transfer, the county organized planned trainings and labor transfer, which has become an important means for the local rural poor to shake off poverty and get rich and a strategic measure for the poverty alleviation and development in the new era, with important promotion value.
1 Introduction 42 1.1 Basic information of li county 42 1.2 Basic information of li county labor office 43 1.3 Implementation conditions 44 2 Implementation process and Specific practices 45 2.1 development process 45 2.2 Specific practices 45 3 Implementation Effect 48 3.1 Broadened income sources and achieved revenue diversification 48 3.2 Promoted the development of agriculture and related industries 48 3.3 Improved the living standards and appearance of rural areas 48 3.4 Developed capable persons and contributed to the construction of home village 49 4 Existing Problems 49 4.1 Low technical quality of labors 49 4.2 Lack of labor rights awareness 49 4.3 Imperfect labor job security 50 4.4 Unsmooth channels for labor dispatch 50 5 Basic Experience 50 5.1 Establish an organizational network 51 5.2 Establish labor transfer bases 51 5.3 Cultivate intermediary organizations 51 5.4 Build labor service brands 51 6 Promotion value 52 6.1 Incorporate labor transfer into poverty alleviation and development 52 6.2 Make innovation to labor transfer model to achieve labor transfer-oriented poverty alleviation 52 6.3 Establish a new relationship between enterprises in labor transfer destinations and the farmers in labor transfer regions for a win-win situation 52 7 References 53 8 Pictures 54 Abstract:With the accelerated pace of reform and opening up and the establishment of the market economy system, labor transfer has become a unique economic phenomenon in the contemporary society. It came into being with the market economy, and promotes the development of market economy. In a certain sense, it has become an effective way for people in impoverished regions to shake off poverty. In recent years, the party committee and government of Li County of Gansu Province made the strategic decision of "developing labor service industry based on local resource advantages" and "promoting the development of the county through industries and enriching people through labor services" and, taking "reducing pressure on land and population" as a starting point, made labor transfer the most important industry and project to accelerate poverty alleviation and development and address the problems of "Three Rural Issues". Through government driving, capable persons’ leading, skills training and base construction, it changed the simple labor transfer into skilled labor transfer, and changed the short-term transfer into long-term organized transfer. To this end, Li County has established long-term cooperation of labor services with Beijing, Tianjin and Guangdong, organized the construction of 20 non-local labor service bases, created the domestic famous labor service brands of "Lixian Girl" and "Lixian Housekeeping Sister", achieved the labor transfer from West China to Southeast coastal areas, achieving the great transition from a "big county of labor services" to a "powerful country of labor services". Through poverty alleviation by labor transfer, the county organized planned trainings and labor transfer, which has become an important means for the local rural poor to shake off poverty and get rich and a strategic measure for the poverty alleviation and development in the new era, with important promotion value.

Introduction :

1 Introduction

Located in southeastern part of Gansu Province, at the upper reaches of Xihanshui of Jialing River, Yangtze Valley, Li County has a population of more than 510,000 and rural per capita net income of 1000 yuan or so and is a typical big county of agricultural population. With many high mountains and deep valleys, the county has inconvenient traffic, harsh natural conditions and a weak agricultural foundation, with farmers’ income increasing slowly and many people living in poverty, and is one of the key counties for national poverty alleviation and development identified by the State Council.

With a big population, Li County has a large number of labors. Among its 520,000 residents, 250,000 are rural people, including more than 100,000 surplus labors. Li County launched labor transfer in mid-1980s. With the accelerated pace of reform and opening up, after two decades of practices, labor transfer has now become a main component of the countys rural economy and farmers income, making a great contribution to the countys poverty reduction and new rural construction and opening up an effective way for the countys work related to Three Rural Issues.

In recent years, under the correct leadership of the County Party Committee and the guidance of the scientific concept of development, based on the actual situation of local area, the county government gives top priority to labor transfer in economic development, takes it as the first industry to increase farmers income, the first project to speed up poverty alleviation and development and the first major event to balance urban and rural development, in accordance with the guideline of "fair treatment, reasonable guidance, management improvement and good services", successively introduced relevant policies, improved the working mechanism, found out the labors situation, carried out study of the labor market, established labor service bases, organizing trainings and labor transfer and strengthened rights protection. As a result, the labor service work of the county shows a gratifying situation and strong momentum of development. So far, the country has established more than 90 labor service bases nationwide, with workers scattered in 28 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) throughout the country, covering 140 kinds of jobs in more than 20 industries. In 2006, the county transferred a total of 113,000 labors and recorded a labor service revenue of 362 million yuan; per capital net income of the workers reached 3200 yuan and the countys per capita labor service revenue of farmers reached 730 yuan, accounting for 53% of the per capita net income of farmers that year.

1.1 Basic information of Li County

Belonging to Longnan City of Gansu Province, located in the southeast part of Gansu Province and the northern area of Longnan City, at the upper reaches of Xihanshui of Yangze River, Li County is adjacent to Tianshui in the east and Min County in the west and connects Longnan in the south and Wushan in the north. It has a population of 521,000 and ten townships, 19 towns and 568 administrative villages, and covers a land area of 4299.92 square kilometers with complex terrain. It is high in northwest and low in southeast, full of mountains, hills and deep valleys, and covers a large mountain area, accounting for 91% of the total land area of the county. Due to the harsh natural conditions, the county has a rather weak agricultural foundation, low productivity and backward infrastructure, with farmers income increasing slowly and people living in poverty, and is a traditional agricultural county with a big population and weak economic foundation and is one of the key counties for national poverty alleviation and development.

1.1.1 Economic and social development situation of Li County

In 2013, the national economy showed a trend of steady growth on the whole. With the rapid economic development of West China, the county government headed the local residents to develop competitive industries based on local situation and made rapid progress in economic and social development, leading to GDP growth for several consecutive years. In 2013, the county's GDP reached 2.49 billion yuan, 2.4 times that of 2007 (1.03 billion yuan), and large-caliber financial revenue amounted to 244 million yuan, 3.9 times that of 2007 (0.63 million yuan).

1.1.2 Per capita net income of rural residents of Li County

In recent years, the county's economic development continues to maintain a strong growth momentum. As a result, the farmers' income continues to increase. During the period from 2007 to 2013, the farmers' income rose from 1500 yuan to 3438 yuan, with an increase of 2.3 times, and this figure in 2003 was 438 yuan more than that of 2012, 14.6% up, ranking first in Longnan City. For four consecutive years since 2009, Li County ranks first in the city in terms of farmers' net income per capita.

1.1.3 Poverty situation of Li County

Li County is one of the poor counties of Gansu Province with the largest poverty-stricken population, the deepest degree of poverty and the largest poor area. As of 2010, Li County had a total population of 535400, of which 484200 were rural residents, accounting for 90.4%; and 260,000 were rural labors, including more than 130,000 surplus labors. 454 villages of the county are key villages for poverty alleviation, accounting for nearly 80% of the total administrative villages. Based on the new national poverty line of 2300 yuan, Li County has a total of 391500 poverty-stricken people, accounting for 81% of the total, and is characterized by overall poverty, income poverty and ecological poverty. The poor mainly live in the four districts of the northwest and southwest regions, covering 16 towns, 204500 people, and 226 key villages for poverty reduction, accounting for nearly 50% of the total key villages. It is remote and has a complex landform and many high mountains and deep valleys. People are scattered everywhere and mainly drink the rain and snow water of water cellars. The ecological environment is extremely fragile. Droughts, rainstorms, frosts and landslides often occur, and the county has rather weak ability to resist natural disasters. In the "5.12" Earthquake and the "8.12" Catastrophic Flood Disaster, the vast majority of the people here returned poverty and faced serious survival risks without food, clothing and housing security. In 2011, Li County was not hit by so many disasters, but the droughts, rainstorms, frosts and landslides still affected 298800 people and the yield of crops of 20600 ha., leading to direct economic loss of 126 million yuan.

From 2001 to 2012, according to statistics, the county invested a total of 13.857 billion yuan of various types of anti-poverty funds, implemented 1411 poverty alleviation projects and reduced poverty-stricken people by 203500. There are now still 208800 poor residents in the county, accounting or 44.24% of the total. A big number of farmers, a small land area and surplus labor force are still the countys actual situation. To this end, with the purpose to "reduce pressure on land and population", the county took labor transfer as the most important industry and the largest project to accelerate the poverty alleviation and development and address problems related to three rural issues.

1.2 Basic information of Li County Labor Office

 

In 2003, the General Office of State Council issued the "Notice on Strengthening Management and Services of Migrant Workers Employment" as the programmatic document to guide the non-agricultural employment of farmers, which had a great and far-reaching impact on labor transfer. As a result, the environment of migrant work was greatly improved, private businesses witnessed rapid growth and a large number of jobs were created. With basically mature external conditions for the large-scale transfer of rural labors, to adapt to the new situation, in 2004, Li County officially founded the County Government Labor Office to be responsible for: (1) the implementation of national, provincial, municipal and county labor service policies, laws and regulations, assisting in the development of the countys annual plan and long-term planning for labor service development; (2) Supervision on the management of labor service, vocational skills trainings, certification, labor resources statistics, occupation introduction as well as "one-stop" services;. (3) Labor market construction to achieve online labor information services; (4) Organization and leadership of the county’s labor services work, in charge of the transfer of urban and rural surplus labors; (5) Making statistics of the county's urban and rural surplus labor resources, establishing a sound labor information network, and providing employment guidance for the workers; (6) Construction of the labor service bases and vocational skills training bases, and training of migrant workers to improve the quality and skills of the workers; (7) Hearing labor dispute cases, providing labor dispute arbitration and relevant rights protection services for labors according to "Labor Law" to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of workers; (8) Trans-regional labor cooperation and overseas labor cooperation; (9) Supervision and inspection of labor support policies, summarizing and promote the successful experience of model workers and actively developing the labor service economy.

1.3 Implementation conditions

1.3.1 Due to the large population and small land area, labor transfer and immigration have become its inevitable choice to shake off poverty

As a traditional populous agricultural county, Li County has a rather weak financial foundation and is weak in industry, and is one of the key counties for poverty alleviation and development identified by the State Council. With many high mountains and deep valleys, the county has inconvenient traffic, harsh natural conditions, a weak agricultural foundation, a large population and few industrial enterprises, with farmers’ income increasing slowly and little potential to attract labor resources. In some areas, the conflicts between people and land are relatively prominent and a large number of labors are idled. Thus, under the new situation, we must promote the rational flow of rural surplus labors to address problems related to Three Rural Issues, carry out labor transfer and organize ex-situ location to increase the possibility, reality and necessity for farmers income growth.

1.3.2 Farmers have high enthusiasm for building a well-off society

Over the years, the harsh environment and hard life helped develop the residents ability to endure hardship and entrepreneurial spirit, and made them have a strong desire to shake off poverty. In the past, they upheld the traditional idea of home is always the best place. With economic and social development, the residents changed their idea and determined to shake off poverty through non-local business launching.

1.3.3 With years of labor transfer and migration, a number of fixed industries and work regions have been developed.

The construction industry in Lanzhou, Henan, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi, the mining industry of Shanxi Province, the housekeeping services of Beijing and Tianjin and the agricultural production and development in Xinjiang and Hexi Region all provided work positions for the labor force of Li County, and these workers enjoyed certain reputation in these regions and industries and created brands, not only opening up a new path for these areas to accept more labors and immigrants from Li County, but further strengthened the determination of Li Countys labors and immigrants to work and move to non-local areas, forming a virtuous cycle and promoting labor transfer and migration


Content :

2 Implementation process and specific practices

2.1 Development process

- Recalling the history of Li County's labor transfer over the past three decades, it has gone through three stages:

Initial and development stage (1978-1996): At this stage, the employment structure was simple, people did not have a strong consciousness of labor transfer, only few farmers went out to work in slack season, few labors were transferred and the labor service economy was at the initial stage. Within five years, Li County only transferred 32,000 labors, characterized by wave-style advancement and inflectional development.

Stage of steady advancement (1997-2003): Li County officially founded the Labor Office affiliated to the County Poverty Alleviation Office, strengthened administrative promotion, and implemented a series of policies and measures to support labor transfer. As a result, labor transfer witnessed slight increase and steady development.

Stage of structural transformation (since 2004): Under the guidance of the Scientific Outlook on Development, based on the actual situation of local area, from the perspective of overall development, the county government gives top priority to labor transfer in economic development, takes it as the first industry to increase farmers’ income, the first project to speed up poverty alleviation and development and the first major event to balance urban and rural development, in accordance with the guideline of "fair treatment, reasonable guidance, management improvement and good services", successively formulated the Decisions on Strengthening Labor Services and the Labor Service Planning 2006-2010, and officially founded Li County Peoples Government Labor Office. With the adjustment of labor services work, the improvement of the work network and mechanism, the survey of labor force and labor market, the establishment of the labor service bases and the organization of legal rights protection activities, the labor service work of the county shows a gratifying situation and strong momentum of development. In 2005, the county transferred 96280 rural labors, with a net increase of 24100 and 7400 over 2003 and 2004 respectively. In 2012, it transferred 133700 labors (including 80,000 for organized labor transfer), recorded labor service income of 1.545 billion yuan, accounting for 56% of the per capita net income of farmers. Labor service industry has become a pillar industry to enrich people and entered a new stage of development.

2.2 Specific practices

2.2.1 Main practices of Li County government

With the bi-directional development concept of "tapping the resource advantages and developing labor service industry", taking labor transfer as the backbone to boost rural economic development and the first project to speed up poverty alleviation and development, in accordance with the guideline of "transfer one labor to support one family and boost the economic development of one place", Lixian County vigorously supported and guided farmers to go out to work in non-local areas, actively implemented the sunshine project of labor transfer training, stimulated the rural economy and broadened sources of income. As a result, the labor service income increased for many consecutive years and labor service industry has shown a good momentum of rapid development.

2.2.1.1 Building the platform to address people's problems with good services

Li County continuously explored ways for labor transfer management, strengthened the macro management of labor transfer, successively set up the labor service organization network covering the whole county, established the County Peoples Government Labor Service Office and township labor working stations, which were equipped with full-time service staff; established labor work liaison offices in each administrative village, arranged liaison officers for the regions or competitive industries concentrated with labors in the county, set up the labor service offices in the labor transfer destinations to provide follow-up services and safeguard labors legal rights and interests; successively established a number of labor transfer industry associations, set up the "migrant worker service hall of Li County", implemented the one-stop office and one-station services to provide relevant certificate and consulting services, and coordinate to address disputes on labor services of relevant departments so that migrant workers will feel the governments determination for poverty reduction and doing practical things for people.

2.2.1.2 Mobilizing people's enthusiasm to enrich them through labor services

Many people in Li County uphold the traditional idea that home is the best place to stay and are unwilling to go out. To this end, Li County made propagandas on labor transfer, striving to create an atmosphere of publicity for labor transfer, made large fixed billboards along the main traffic lines, paste publicity posters in the towns, villages and village teams, and mobilized the labor service and immigration departments to set up propaganda teams for publicity in villages, village teams and rural households. The County Labor Office prepared the "Li Countys Trilogy of Labor Services", well known in a variety of activity venues and among the masses, creating the atmosphere of all people singing the same song to get rich through labor services. Meanwhile, through the activities of selecting the "Top Ten Champions of Labor", "Top Ten Domestic Workers" and "Top Hundred Housekeepers", the County Party Committee and County Government sang high praise of model workers and made propagandas on their good deeds, mobilizing the enthusiasm of migrant workers and boosting the development of labor service industry.

2.2.1.3 Constructing bases to achieve labor migration

According to guideline of "consolidating the old bases and establishing a new market" for labor migration, the county constantly constructed labor transfer bases covering a large area characterized by a large market demand for labors, good living conditions and high wage income, successively opened up more than 20 labor transfer bases in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Qingdao, Fujian, Xinjiang and Hexi Corridor of Gansu, etc. In 2010 alone, the county transferred 820 industrial workers to Beijing, Tianjin and Shenzhen with an annual revenue of more than 16 million yuan, and more than 600 of these workers established long-term labor service cooperative relations and signed long-term labor contracts with the local employers. Since 2008, according to statistics, 1200 farmers of the county have achieved "labor migration" and settled down in many big cities such as Beijing, Tianjin and Shenzhen, and more than 10,000 migrant workers have shaken off poverty and are living a happy life.

2.2.1.4 Holding order trainings to create labor service brands

The quality of workers determines employment opportunities and labor income. Based on the actual situation of a large number of low-quality labors, the county carried out large-scale migrant workers skills training in various forms. Despite the weak financial foundation, the county government raised funds from various channels and established the County Labor Transfer Training Center jointly with the local vocational school characterized by "one institution, two names, division of labor and cooperation with advantages complementing each other", set up a dozen of majors including housekeeping, room service, restaurant service, public security, construction, sewing, computer operation, cooking skills, etc., and organized skills training for migrant workers as planned according to the actual situation of the labor bases.

By the end of 2010, the county had held a total of 63 training courses on farm machinery driving and maintenance, rural animal epidemic prevention, housekeeping, security and construction for 7883 rural surplus labors, transferred 7794 migrant workers, achieved the transition of migrant workers from simple labor services to intellectual services and successively created the famous labor service brands of Lixian Girl, Lixian Sister, Lixian Upfitter” and Lixian Scaffolder, etc. 

Through the above measures, Li County explored eight paths for labor transfer in line with local situations, namely: to strengthen leadership and improve the service system for organized labor transfer; to vigorously hold trainings and cultivate high-quality workers for labor transfer; to expand the bases and tap market potential for large-scale labor transfer; to play its advantages for industrialized labor transfer; to strengthen management and services for ordered labor transfer; to support business launching by returned migrant workers for local labor transfer in towns; to speed up small town and infrastructure construction for local labor transfer in the county; and to accelerate the adjustment of rural economic structure to promote labor transfer through structural adjustment. These effective measures accelerated the pace of the county's labor transfer and made labor economy a pillar industry to increase the income of farmers.

2.2.2 Main practices of the relevant government departments

Mobilizing all social forces to create a relaxed environment for labor transfer. The County Labor and Social Security Bureau organized regular labor market rectification in accordance with law to fight against illegal intermediaries and deceptive and extortionate recruitment behaviors and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of labor workers. The County Women's Federation established the Li County Guidance Services Center for Women's Employment and the Women and Children Rights Protection Center to specialize in female labor transfer. The County Agricultural Bank and the County Rural Credit Cooperatives issued low-interest petty loans to labor workers; the County Population and Family Planning Commission provided free accreditation services for migrant workers; the County Post Office and Township Post Office are equipped with labor worker service counter to facilitate the services for them; the County Household Register Management Department has created a green window for the labor workers and gives priority to them in providing services; the county transportation management departments arrange special cars to send and pick up migrant workers in peak times for returning home and going out. With joint efforts of various departments, the county has created a good social environment for labor services.

2.2.3 Development of labor intermediary organizations

To expand labor transfer channels, Li County encourages the development of legitimate labor transfer agencies. While developing and expanding the intermediary agencies in labor security departments, it supports individuals to launch intermediary agencies and develop "labor brokers" and adopted a series of positive support policies to promote the development of labor transfer agencies. According to statistics, there are now 22 legal intermediary organizations and more than 240 labor brokers in Li County, basically forming a rural labor employment service system with public employment agencies of labor and social security departments as the core, complemented by the employment agencies of non-labor service departments, providing a carrier and creating conditions for labor transfer. Meanwhile, Li County has successively established six labor export industry associations, covering construction, domestic service, mining, building material, processing and transportation industry, achieving the direct contacts between government organizations and the masses.

3 Implementation Effect

The rise of labor service industry and the booming labor economy have not only greatly boosted the rapid growth of agriculture and rural economy, but also have a profound impact on economic and social development in many aspects.

3.1 Broadened income sources and achieved revenue diversification

The farmers of Li County have very limited potential for income growth relying on the existing land resources, very limited space for income growth relying on rising prices of agricultural products and very limited magnitude for income growth relying on policies. In this context, labor transfer has become the main channel and a realistic choice for the farmers to increase income at this stage. In recent years, the farmers' per capita labor income increased from 738 yuan in 1994 to 2,493 yuan in 2005, and the proportion of per capita labor income in farmers per capita net income increased year by year, rising from 15.63% in 1994 to 38.69 %.

3.2 Promoted the development of agriculture and related industries

Labor transfer has not only solved the survival problem of the migrants, but also led to the efficient allocation of labor resources in rural areas, optimized the distribution structure of the rural labor force and directly improved the rural labor productivity. Some of the income of migrant workers was put in agriculture, effectively expanding the agricultural reproduction scale. A large number of farmers go out to work, greatly easing the contradiction between people and land. If 90,000 residents of Li County are transferred to other regions every year, based on the current per capita share of cultivated land, it is equivalent to an increase of more than 180,000 hectares in arable land. Labor transfer has also directly contributed to the formation of the land transfer mechanism. As a result, some land is used for planting and major households engaged in livestock breeding, creating conditions for intensive farming, large-scale operation, the application of modern agricultural machinery and the promotion of sophisticated technologies, thus promoting the development of agriculture industrialization and accelerating the pace of agricultural modernization. The flow of nearly 100 thousand rural labors of Li County every year will of course promote the development of transportation, catering, accommodation, commercial circulation and related service industry. Labor transfer has become a new driving force for economic growth in urban and rural areas.

3.3 Improved the living standards and appearance of rural areas

The experience of migrant work increased the income of the masses, broadened their horizons, enriched their knowledge and skills, enhanced their ability and changed their traditional ideas. With the influence of modern urban civilization, their living habits have changed significantly. According to the survey, in the past three years, 80% of the money for new house building in Li County was from migrant work income, 90% of the money for purchasing home appliances and furniture came from labor income, and many people have fundamentally improved their families living conditions through migrant work, contributing to the improvement of the appearance of the countryside. During their vacation and holidays in home village, they held a variety of cultural and recreational activities to promote the rural civilization and narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, making a direct contribution to the construction of a harmonious society and new countryside. Liu Ningning, a capable migrant worker of Yangpo Village of Mahe Town, leads more than 100 people to engage in construction industry in Xinjiang. During the Spring Festival of 2005, he donated 6000 yuan to purchase a set of basketball stands and sponsored the basketball game participated by the masses of 18 villages. Shishan Team of Yahou Village in Zhongba Town has no highroads. The migrant worker Shi Gensheng of this village invested 12,000 yuan to mobilize the masses to build the village highroads of 5.5 kilometers. This road is known as the Labor Service Road in the village now.  

3.4 Developed capable persons and contributed to the construction of home village

Most migrant workers have accumulated some capital and enhanced their operation and management capability through labor services, some of them have brought the capital and technologies to launch businesses in their home village to contribute to the social welfare, and some introduced construction projects to boost the economic development of their home village. According to statistics, since 2000, the migrant workers of Li County has introduced construction funds of more than 11 million yuan, launched more than 50 enterprises and created more than 1200 jobs for the rural labors, embarking on the path for a virtuous cycle.

4 Existing Problems

4.1 Low technical quality of labors

Located in a remote mountainous area in northwest China, Li County has relatively backward economy and culture and a low educational level of local residents. Low-quality labors hold a large proportion of the total labors and most of the labors transferred are farmers, who have not mastered so many professional skills and are not qualified for the work positions with high requirements for professions and theory. Thus, many labors of Li County have to choose the simple and low-technology jobs. As a result, most of the migrant workers of Li County are not paid as high as others despite their hard work.

4.2 Lack of labor rights awareness

The labor service industry has begun to take shape in Li County, but there are still many problems between labor and employers. First, the workers know little about their rights and related issues and usually cannot get rights relief in the event of an accident or danger; Second, the legal rights and interests of some dispatched labors cannot be protected. Some labor dispatch enterprises have little capital and few fixed assets with poor management, not covered by social insurance, so the workers labor and social security rights can hardly be guaranteed. In summary, as the workers do not have a strong consciousness for their legal rights and the supervision of the employers is not satisfying, the legal rights and interests of many workers cannot be well protected.

4.3 Imperfect labor job security

The overall legal system of labor and social security is not perfect yet, so there is not a legal basis for labor dispatch in practice, leading to the following problems: First, the dispatch organizations use different agreement contents and standards; Second, no solutions have been explored for some responsibility problems; Third, disputes can hardly be resolved. In Li County, the legal system is also imperfect for labor dispatch, and migrant workers cannot find any legal rights protection departments when needed. As a result, the legal rights and interests of the employers and workers cannot be well guaranteed.

Despite great improvement of the working environment and living conditions of the migrant workers of Li County, some workers still work and live in poor environment. On the one hand, after being sent to the work units, some migrant workers work very hard but enjoy no vacation or holiday or the working conditions as agreed, so they live in poor conditions and feel very tired. On the other hand, many workers have to work overtime and do a lot of odd jobs, always ready for many "temporary, subsidiarity and alternative" work positions, with low wage income, no welfare, no reserved funds and no chance for promotion, even no social insurance. Many of them have even not signed the formal labor contract with the employers.

4.4 Unsmooth channels for labor dispatch

In recent years, organized labor transfer continued to increase, mostly by the relevant organizations and social groups, but it is still not the main channel of labor transfer. The labor transfer market is still not mature, the relevant laws and regulations are still imperfect, the government lacks effective means, and some illegal employment agencies and some information consulting companies defraud migrant workers money with false information as they know the farmers want jobs urgently and do not have the ability to distinguish. Some companies are also involved in the extortion activities. All these have reduced migrant workers trust in labor intermediary organizations, affected social agencies image in the eyes of farmers and hindered the healthy development of social organizations, which has become a direct reason why many migrant workers turn to the “street market or to their relatives and fellow villagers for jobs.

5 Basic Experience

In accordance with the guideline of "fair treatment, reasonable guidance, management improvement and good services", based on local situation and from the perspective of overall development, Li County determined the poverty alleviation and development strategy of "cultivating characteristic industries and promoting labor transfer". With the purpose to achieve "scientific management, good supporting services, modernized services and efficient operation", under the principle of "market-oriented operation, enterprise management, industrial management", the county has established the long-term labor transfer mechanism, effectively promoting the development of labor service industry.

5.1 Establish an organizational network

(1) Set up the County People's Government Labor Service Office to specialize in the county’s workforce skills training, labor transfer organization and management.

(2) Set up labor working stations in 29 towns across the county, and set up the labor work liaison stations in 568 administrative villages, making the network cover villages.

(3) Arranged more than 3800 liaison officers for the labor transfer destinations of 2607 village teams and all circles of society, and more than 460 liaison officers for the labor transfer regions concentrated with labor force or for competitive industries. So far, Li County has a total of 4260 labor transfer liaison officers.

(4) Set up labor transfer agencies in Beijing, Xinjiang and Hexi Region to provide follow-up services and protect the labors legal rights and interests.  

(5) Set up six labor transfer industrial associations, covering construction, domestic service, mining, building material, processing and transportation industry, achieving the direct contacts between government organizations and the masses. Through the above measures, it established the working network and multi-wheel driven organizational system characterized by the interaction between the county and the towns, villages, village teams and rural households.

5.2 Establish labor transfer bases

(1) Made clear the migrant workers working sites and industries, determined the key points and established the long-term cooperative relationship through negotiation.

(2) Guided the decentralized migrant workers to concentrate in the key industries and regions to expand the scale and occupy market shares so as to achieve scale effect. In the construction of new bases, accurately determine the positions of supplier and demander relying on the "order services" and promote development in the manner of market operation.

5.3 Cultivate intermediary organizations

To expand labor transfer channels, Li County encourages the development of legitimate labor transfer agencies. While developing and expanding the intermediary agencies in labor security departments, it supports individuals to launch intermediary agencies and develop "labor brokers" and adopted a series of positive support policies to promote the development of labor transfer agencies. According to statistics, there are now 22 legal intermediary organizations and more than 240 labor brokers in Li County, basically forming a rural labor employment service system with public employment agencies of labor and social security departments as the core, complemented by the employment agencies of non-labor service departments, providing a carrier and creating conditions for labor transfer.

5.4 Build labor service brands

Currently, labor transfer has entered the era of brand management, and the competition in labor market is actually the competition among labor service brands. Whoever has created its own brand will have more opportunities to get more market shares. Through years of efforts, Li County has built its famous brands of housekeeping, construction workers and miners. On the one hand, starting with improving the quality of workers, while strengthening skills training, Li County strengthened government guidance and formed a certain labor transfer scale, laying a basis for its brand creation; on the other hand, it strengthened brand publicity and promotion, presented its strengths, finally occupied, consolidated and expanded the market. 

6 Promotion Value

6.1 Incorporate labor transfer into poverty alleviation and development

As a populous county, Li County has a total of 520,000 people, of which 250,000 are rural labors, including 100,000 affluent labors. Based on its labor resource advantage, through labor training and transfer, Li County has embarked on a new path of poverty alleviation based on local conditions with local characteristics. Labor transfer has resulted in the efficient allocation of labor resources in rural areas, optimized the distribution structure of the rural labor force and directly improved the rural labor productivity, boosted rural economic development and improved the living standards of local residents, laying a solid foundation for the construction of a new socialist countryside.

6.2 Make innovation to labor transfer model to achieve labor transfer-oriented poverty alleviation

In accordance with the principle of "market-oriented operation, enterprise management and industrialized management", under the governments guidance, giving full play to the role of government departments, social organizations and various service agencies,